Live in Oct 08.
I. Psalms is a collection of 150 songs, poems, lyrics; they are Israelite religious poems
1. Religious songs of Yahweh, There are 3 divisions in the Jewish Bible denoted by Tanatc
2. a. à Law -- Torah.
b.-à Prophets -- Nabium.
c. Writing – ketubim
The book of Ps is the 1st book of the 3 part writings.
3. The 1st two were used in the synagogues; Jesus read from the prophets.
The Ps is a song sung to the accompaniment of the harp like a stringed Instrument.
Musical Instruments 1. Stringed – Harp
2. Wind – flute.
3. Percussion – drums
4. Why were the Pss composed. They were principally composed for liturgical worship. They are poetic forms.
5. What were the songs based on.
The basis of Is prayer is the covenant, the Lord has chosen it as his people & both the Lord & Is has certain obligations.
6. What kind of relationship.
It is not a one to one relationship, it is a triangular relationship Yahweh interacts with the community & the Individual YHWH
Individual < >Community
The Individual has to be in relationship with the community, & the community should be in relationship with the with individual. It presumes that the individual can truly interact with God only by including the community.
7. In the Pss there is ‘I, my”, it may be in the plural form, they reflect the whole community expressing their faith.
8. The history of Israel shows the fundamental reality thro all social & historical changes, was Israel as a worshiping community. For this reason the book of Ps is in the very heart of the OT.
9. These songs are adoration & thanksgiving, confessions, supplications are Israel’s response to YHWHs active presence in her history.
10. The book of Ps (Psalter) is a condensed account of Israel’s history o0f God from the time of David down to the last period of the OT.
11. Almost 1/3rd. of the Pss fall in the category of individual lament or songs of supplication, ie prayer to God, to deliverance by one who is in distress. The distressed one has great confidence trust & love for YHWH
12. What are the titles used for YHWH. à Creator, redeemer, Shepherd, Rock, Refuge, Light, Shield, Savior.
13. What are the attributes of YHWH. à He is kind, loving, merciful, just, generous, forgiving, all powerful, & strong.
II. The Jewish bible has 39 books, The Xtian bible has these 39 + 7 = 46 bks in OT.
The Pss are a Xtian tradition.
1. Jesus himself quoted the Pss in his teachings
Mt 21:42 // Ps 118:22-23. The stone that was rejected has become the corner stone.
Mt 27:46 // Ps 22:1 My God, my God why have you forsaken me.
Lk 23:46 // Ps 31:5. Father in to your hands I commend my spirit.
2. The apostles in the early church used the Pss to understand the person of Jesus & the events of his life & ministry. The NT books often refer to the Pss.
Heb 5:5 // Ps 2 You are my son today, I have become your father.
Mt 27:48 // Ps 69:41 They gave me vinegar to drink
3. The church uses the Pss in her worship.
à In the Eucharist.
à Divine Office (Breviary) to be said by all priests morning & evening, & night prayers
4. It is a valuable tool for prayer.. The Ps leads us to selfless praise, he talks to the heavenly father à 139 or 23
Eph 5:19; Col 3:16 Even the NT writers recommend the Pss.
III. The book of Pss. In Heb Seper 9pronounced as sefer) Seper tehellium = book of praise.
The root of tehellium is Hallel/jah; hallel = praise.
The theme of praise & thanksgiving run through the whole book
The Greek theme of this is Psalterion, mosaic song to the accompaniment of string instruments.
Latin à psalterium à book of hymns.
Both the Heb. & the Greek titles of the book enable us to recognize the fundermental nature of the Pss. They are songs sung specially when people are gathered in the community, thro these songs we give praise to God.
IV. The formation of psalter.
The book of pss is not clearly the work of one author, nor a result of one single act of composition. It appears to be a collection of various smaller collection of individual songs.
Ps 42-49. Sons of Korah (temple official)
End of Ps 72. Prayer of David are ended.
73-83. Asaph – musician
There are 55 Pss attributing to a choir master
93-100. The universal kingship of YHWH
113-118. Hallel that was sung at the pass over.
120-136. Great Hallel
120-134. The song of assents, specially when they were on pilgrimages. Ps 122.
146-150. Final Hallel. Song of praise, praise of the Lord.
The formation of Psalter underwent a complicated process of over 6 cen from
1000-400 BC . Approximately from David to post exilic. It is difficult to pinpoint with certainty its formation, & many theories that may be offered
V. They desided to have 5 sections of the Pss like the Torah.
Book I Ch 1-41. Earlier collection of Davidic Hymns.
II 42-72 Northern collection of Hymns.
III 73-89 Collection of TempleSinger.
IV 90-106 Royal Collection.
V 107-150. The Second expanded Davidic collection.
The Heb & the LXX version (50+10+10=70 Jewish scholars translated the Heb Bible OT from Heb to Greek Septuagint) of the text
This is because of the Diaspora of the Jews who did not know Hebrew Therefore it was translated from Hebrew to Greek.
The Original book of Psalms translated from Hebrew to Greek.
The Greek #s are one behind the Hebrew #s.
VI. AUTHOR. According to popular understanding it was David, David was a musician King. He composed songs. He was the one who gave the impetus to the composition of religious songs.
The book in the present form is the result of long development from 1000-400BC. Which was completed after the time of David. David name was put as author because of his love for music as a patron of the art. (pseudonomyty)
Me kenzie a Biblical Scholor à The compilation of the book in the present form was an extremely complex process. The book was obviously submitted to an unceasing process of development & adaptation. Individual Pss become collective, Private prayers became liturgical songs of local sanctuaries are adapted to the temple of Jerusalem. Royal Pss became messianic, Historical Pss became eschatological.
Role of David. 1. He was a musician 1 Sam 16:18-23; 1 Sam 18:10; Amos 6:5.
2. He was a poet 2 Sam 1:19-27; Song of lamentation. Vs 17, 23.; 2 Sam 6:5-16.
3. He is an organisor of the liturgical cult Ezra 3:10; Neh 12:24,36.
VII. Date of Composition. Around 5 Cen BC post exilic.
VIII. Divisions: It is divided in to 5 books.
The psalter is prefaced by Ps 1, a wisdom poem, describing the joy of righteouness in the study of the Torah. Ps 1 is paired with Ps 119 the great Torah.
Ps 119 has 176 verses it is the greatest longest Torah Ps.
117 is the shortest Ps with 2 verses.
Which deals with the law of the Lord.
The 1st. 4 books on each of the end of the section there is a doxology. Statement of praise & Blessing.
41 à 13
72 à 18-19.
89 à 52
106 à 48.
146-150 Praise the Lord. Beginning & the end called the extended Doxology.
Praise the Lord conclude all the 5 books in Ps 150. Double praise the Lord.
IX. The type of Ps. Liturgical form.
H Gunkel & S Mowinekel who did a lot of study on the Pss
1. They said in the bk of pss there are doublets, that means there were several collection that were used
a. Ps 14 – ps 53.
b. 40:13-17 ; Ps 70.
c. 57:7-11 60:6-12 = Ps 108.
d. Ps 18 2 Sam 22.
2. There are 2 different collections of Davidic Pss 3-41; 51-71.
3. Song of Ascent 120-134.
4. The Elohist Psalter 42-83
5. Orphan Pss. These are 34 psalms. In the original LXX there are 19.
6. The song of Korah 42, 44-49; 84-85; 87-89.
7. Asaph 50, 73-83.
8. Heman 88
9. Ethan 89
Jedulhum 39, 62,77.
Classification of Pss according to its Literary type.
1. Hymn or song praise
a. Praise proper. Ps 8
b. Praise of YHWH kingship Ps 29.
c. In Praise of Zion Ps 48.
2. Ps of thanksgiving a. Individual thanks Ps 9; b. Community thanks 66.
3. Ps of Lamentation. A. Individual Ps. 5, 6, 7, ; B Community Ps 12.
4. Ps of Confidence Ps 3.
5. Royal Ps. Ps 2.
6. Didactic (teaching) Pss wisdom Pss Ps 1; Prophetic Exhortation Ps 15.
7. Keep truths a. Gods love is steadfast & Faithful
Heb. Hesed emeth.
Hesed = Loving kindness, steadfast love, mercy & compassion
Emeth = Gods faithfulness, he is true to his word, he keeps to his promise, he will never abandon his people
Ex 117. is a classic example of Hesed & emeth.
What is the relationship for the love of God
There are 2 categories of people.
a. They are righteous ie that they have a right relationship with God & one another
righteous = upright, wise, humble & Godly.
b. Wicked = evil doers, fool, scoffers, ungodly The fool is said to have his heart there is no God Ps 10:3-4; Ps 14:1; 53:1.
X. Super Scriptions:
1. Asaph, They were a levitical guild of singers, They were among the party who returned to Jerusalem with Jerababel Ezra 2:41; 7:44.
The guild traced its origin to an ancestor of David chief musician 1 Cor 16:5.
2. Korah a. Edomite clan Gen 36:5. 14, 16, 18.
b. Judahite, Clan of Hebron. 1 Cor 2:43.
c. A Levite family of the clan of Kohath Exo 6:21; 1 Cor 6:22.
The family of Korah were one of the Levites choirs Ps 16 rebellion of Korah.
3. Heman, a famous wise man
In the genealogy of Judah he is the son of Zerah. 1 Cor 2:6;
In the genealogy of Levi he is the son of Joel of a levite clan of Kohath 1 Cor 15:17ff
He was also presented at the dedication of Solomon’s Temple 2 Cor 5:12ff
The legendary wise man became canters & composers in David choir Ps 88.
4. Ethan. Ps 89. He is a famous Wiseman , he is included among the sons of Zerah.
1 Cor 2:6-8 & among the Levites 1 Cor 6:2-29; 1 Cor 15:17-19.
Jeduthun (Jedithun) It is a name of a Levitical choir 1 Cor 16:41ff. In this text Jeduthun leads the choir with Heman.
During thr reign of David & Solomon & who appears again as a Kings seer in the reign of Joshua. 2 Cor 35:15. He is the legendary wise man.
BOOK # 1. 1-41.
- Selah à stop & pray. Ex Ps 3, this selah is found 71 times in Pss. Book of Hebakak 3:9,13
- Sheminith. Ps 6-12. A musical instrument with 8 strings or 8 modes (melodic pattern) 1 Cor 15:21.
- Shiggaion Ps 7 à unknown meaning Habbakuk 3:1
- Gittith Ps 8. A place where men press liquid out of grapes / a musical instrument.
- Muth-labben Ps 9. It is an acrostic type of notation / or a notation for a musical performance. ( how a Ps has to be sung)
- Miktam. Unknown according to LXX. / Miktam means to inscribe on a stela (stele)
- The hind of the dawn. Hind = a specie of deers / female red deer / a musical instrument or a musical notation.
- Maskil Ps 32 Instruction of teaching. Root of the word is to understand or ponder
- Jeduthun. A leader of the temple music Ps 39. 1 Cor 16:41.
BOOK # 2. 42-72.
à In Ch 43, 43, 44, We find Maskil
à In Ch 42, 43, 44 We have Korah ( connected with temple music.
Ch 45. Lilies: The name of a musical instrument ?
Ch 46 Alamoth = young women 1 Cor 15:20.; musical direction of unknown origin & meaning. To be sung by young women. 1 Cor 15:20 implies a musical theme or rhythm. A direction for playing the harp.
Ch 53. Mahalath. A kind of musical instrument ?;
The grand daughter of Abraham, Gen 28:9.
The wife of king Rehoboham in Judah & the grand daughter of David. 2 Cor 11:18.
A musical notation refers to a melody or rhythm pattern ?
Ch 56. The dove on for a Terebinths = oak trees, venerated trees. Meaning unknown.??
Ch 57, 58, 59 Do not destroy. Meaning unknown possibly a musical score. ?
Ch 60. Shushan Eduth à musical instrument ?
Ch 62. Jeduthun
Book 3. 73-89.
Lilies 80. God will make a way
Gittith 81-84. When you find no way
Koroh 85, 87
Mahalath Leannoth 88
Book 4 No Superscriptions. 90 – 106.
Assignments: 27th Oct 2008.
- List the 150 Ps under the authors of the Ps.
- In the Book of Pss how many times the title of YHWH is Rock,Fortress, Shepherd, King
- Which are the musical instruments used in the praise of YHWH
- Identify how many times ‘Selah’ is found
- Identify the Pss that speak of the Exodus event.
- Identify those Pss speaking of Creation.
- Identify the kingship of God ( The Pss either speaks the kingship of God or man)
- Identify words or phrases stating the Law of God
- Identify from the text words Jerusalem, Mt Zion,
HOW TO PRESENT A PSALM.
à Announce the Ps
à Which book or section
à State the order, personal or communitarian.
à What type Ref Fr Leslies notes.
Explain the superscription. Orphan
à Explain the structure.
àExplain the main body of the Ps
à Explain Key words & phrases.
Give the message of the Ps.
Give the relevance of the Ps in our life today
Book 5 107-150.
120-134. Are Ascent songs. Songs sung when they climbed the hill of Jerusalem to go to the temple.
Mascel refer above.
XI. The study of the Psalms.
1. Theology of Psalms
a. Israel’s idea of theology is because God is a savior, he alone is the savior of his people, the people of Israel, the people whom he created in to one nation. When he brought them out of Egypt Exo 15, 16. As a savior he delivers them from bondage in Egypt. preserve them in the wilderness. & bring them safely to the promised land.
à On the individual level Gods salvation is seen in rescuing from enemies, sicknesss, death, providing health, happiness & long life. The titles used for Gods saving activity are rock, inaccessible crag, place of refuge. Ps 28:1; 31:3; 14:6.
b. God is a creator. There are a # of Pss, Several contain brief creation accounts
Ps 74:12-17. Even mini creation accounts 89:10-13.. These texts describe Gods victory over the powers of chaos, The ordering of the cosmos Gods power of his kingdom over the created world Ps 33:6-7.
c. Temple. The book of Pss is called the song book of the Temple.
The temple was Gods palace.
The court of YHWH.
God like human beings ruled from his palace.
God reigned on earth bestowing salvation, blessing. Ps 18:7; 22:7; 36:10. & also judging human kind Ps 9:8-9; 11:4-6.
The Israelites went to the temple in the hope of seeing God, ie being granted an audience with the king.
The temple is also called the court of YHWH. 65:4; 92:13.
The temple site is also called the mountain of YHWH, or his holy mountain. Ps 15:1. 27:5.
The term to seek the face of God also points to the temple 27:4; 42:2.
d. Sheol. Hb. In Greek it is Hades.
Israelites had no clear belief in after life, until the end of the OT, period of David & Macbee
But they did believe in a strong existence of after death.
In a place called Sheol or the neither land
Sheol was a forbidden place a place of darkness 88:6; 143:7.
Sheol = the pit.
Existence of Sheol was life disrupted, life which connoted good health, vivacity, energy.
Psalmist suffering from some illness occasionally refer to them selves as going down to sheol. Ps 22:29; 28:1.
Entering sheol ment not only the end of life but the end of all experience of Gods presence.
Man could experience God only in his earthly existence.
Therefore thee dread of sheol was more then the fear of death or illness.
It was the fear of separation from the power of YHWHs love.
e. enemies: If the psalmist is a private individual then the enemies may be personal foes.
If the Ps are royal compositions, of Egyptian, Mesopotamian kings. & these kings worshiped natures Gods or aligned them selves to cosmic forces of chaos. In Israel view the evil were to be purged from the nation lest they corrupted the Land. Deu 13:2, 5. You should not listen, he is corrupting the land.
f. The righteousness of YHWH.
YHWH, creator, savior of his people, covenant God of Israel. Manifests his righteousness by maintaining the world in order & saving his people from harm. He is also there when he punishes the wicked & defeats Israel’s enemies.
The psalmist is righteous when he is faithful to the covenant God, by keeping the divine commands & dealing uprightly with his neighbors.
The psalmist speaks of Gods faithful love for his people, or for the psalmist himself. The word Heset & emeth (steadfast & Faithful) emphasizes the enduring reality of YHWH as savior of the psalmist as his servant
XI 2. The seasons of our life. Ie order, disorder, new order ( orientation, disorientation, reorientation). All the Pss can be categorized under the 3 seasons.
It is easier to praise God out of the blue, then in disorder, we begin to be isolated, you are plunged into darkness, we grope. In new order things begin to sort out. Miracles brought about by God, we thank God, miracles can be seen by eyes of faith.
The Ps are an expression of seasons of life, hence there are Ps that celebrate order, disorder & new order.
XI 3 Psalms that celebrate order. Heaven
This order is seen in 7 things. ^^^^^^^^^^^^
a. CREATION. The idea of the cosmos is a 3 tiered system || || ||
The love of God is seen in the stability & the order of the
whole creation Ps 33:5ff; 8:1,9; 19:1-6; 33, 104. < Earth >
Gods love is seen in creation. Under world
b. Moral Order:
It deals with the destiny of the righteousness & the wicked. With righteousness there are 4 blessings = long life children, prestige, & prosperity,. If you are good honest & upright the blessings will come to you.
Then why do the wicked prosper.
The book of psalms states that ultimately the righteous will prosper & the wicked perish, & this will take place within this life time.
The Ps dealing with the moral order are didactic ( imparts teachings, & instructions) Wisdom Pss 32:14-15; 37:8-9.; 37:14-15; 49:16-20.
The vanity of worldly riches 36, 52, 73, 75,
Ps 112 lists down blessings for being upright.
c.The order is seen as an covenant with Israel. The people of Israel were formed into YHWH people by the covenant made on Mt Sinai where by ended into a special relationship with God. Ps 100:3; 95:6-7; 135:4.
d. The Law of Gods word.
YHWH showed his steadfast love for Israel. The law given to Israel was the word of God, it was held in the highest esteem Ps 119. the great Torah with 176 verses. They took 22 consonants of the Greek alphabets to each consonants they added 8 verses. 8 verses in each block. Ps 1, Ps 19:7-14; word that denotes law (5) pg 500. Ps 81, Ps 95:7-9.
e. Gods Loving Care:
YHWH cared for his people, throughout its history by providing for their needs & by protecting them against their enemies Ps 78 (wisdom Ps) didactic / teaching Ps
Ps 113:5-9; 114; 105, 111, 136. Be child like not childish.
f. There is order in Gods presence.
Mt Zion is celebrated in the Pss because the cith of Jerusalem & the temple stood on it. The terms Zion, Temple, Jerusalem are synonymous because they speak of Gods presence in the midst of his people. Ps 46:4; 76:2; 84; 87; 48; 122;
What are the condition necessary to enter into Gods presence. Ps 15. Pg (496).
24. Who shall climb the hill of the lord pg 502.
g. Gods rule.
YHWH established the figure of authority, the prophets & especially the king. The royal Ps witness to the regards that Israel had for the Lords anointed
Ps 2. Is an enthronement Ps. & tells of the king special ruleship of YHWH 110. The anointed one is king & priest.
Ps 20 A prayer for a king in times of war
Ps 144. ------------do----------- for victory & prosperity
132 YHWH special regards for David.
89:3-4, Vs 24-29ff.
STRUCTURE OF THE HYMN ( of praise)
1. Invitation to praise or bless God.
2. Body of the Ps. Reason or motive for praising God.
3. Conclusion. May repeat the invitation, may utter a blessing / vow or a brief petition.
The motive of praise are found in the attributes of YHWH, his power in nature Ps 8. 19:2-7; Ps 29. OR his saving deed in the history of Israel Ps 114, 136.
Ex Ps 8 Open & ends with the same phrase.
Cry of admiration, contemplation of the heaven Pg. 493.
Human being share in Gods own glory so that they may represent him on earth. The God of Ps 8 who delegates not hordes power & there by escapes the dangers of reducing human beings to the level of puppets, with free will & freedom. With this which way will human beings turn. The Ps challenges to be authors of life & not proliferators of death. (pro life)
Human beings tend to be Gods
Ps Gittith Invitation ‘same body, conclusion same
Ps 29. Ps of David
Opening ascribe to the Lord
Ps was a pagan composition praising Baal., The God of fertility.
à Dry summer drought, waiting for fertility
1-2 Intro to the invitation of the God
There is a cosmic force.
The psalmist has put YHWH not Baal.
He will look after the fertility of his people. Land crops, men & women, animals.
It is now YHWH who meets the fertility of his people
Vs 3-9. storm
fear< > admiration.
Vs 11. Praise that God may impart the power that shaped the universe to the king of Israel, & through the king to his people, thus the hymn celebrate the power od the Lord & the sharing of the creative power of the people of God.
Ps 48. A hymn of praise of Zion. City of God is Zion.
Zion is described as an impregnable city, The pilgrims considered God the divine source of the city strength.
2-3. The city praised.
4-8. All the enemies are routed.
9-11. Gods steadfast love, Gods name be praised, & He be victorious.
12-14. Description of Zion.
Vs 3 // Micah 3:11 God is in the citadel, Zep 3:15, 17.
Fear grips them. Vs 5,6. = Exo 15:14-16; Josh 2:9-11.
All this brings joy to the pilgrim & they join the procession around the holy city.
XI 4. Psalms that celebrate Disorder. ( 2 Groups)
These Pss express the distress that the individual or the community was experiencing. They are also called lamentation Pss or Pss of complaint or supplications
Structure 1. God is addressed personally. A short invocation that is urgent. & forceful is made. Ex Ps 22.
2. The complaint proper is made, the situation of distress is described in vivid terms
3. A petition is made ie a plea for resque. à save us help us.
4. The motivation is expressed. Why the psalmists expects God to hear his prayer.
Remember how you used to act
- I am innocent
- I have sinned
- I have no one to turn to.
- Act for thy name sake
- (cry for vengeance) Kill them revengeful. Not in the Ps.
- Assurance in faith. YHWH will hear the complaint
- Payment of vows. A promise to do something. Ex. a thanksgiving sacrifice.
The Disorder can be at 2 levels. Personal or communitarian.
Personal disorders 3 factors.
1. Mortal sickness Ps 41.
He is afflicted with physical & moral suffering
2. Enemies. The wicked, those who envy, the evil doers, . Ps 5. The Ps of supplication.
The psalmist (Levite) is unjustly accused.
Ps 43. enemies can be outside people.
- Enemies. Vengeance / curse.
2. Enemies : Cursing / Vengeance Ps 35; 1-8.
Ps 69:22-28. The entire Ps is a graphic description of acute pain, faith in the Lord, & the desire for revenges Vs 9;
Vs 19-20 God knows & does nothing.
In the ancient near east the curse plays a prominent role in the human quest for justice. Justice is the content of the Ps. These curses were solemn legal formulations, they were considered legally binding& they rested on the sanction of God up on whose will the entire social order depended. Essentially they were powerful demands that justice prevailed by means of divine intervention. For the oppressed was their redressed injustice, from the pagan culture. Israel to God.
3. Sin. The disorder could be brought about by sin.
There are 7 Pss traditionally regarded as penitential Pss. 6; 32; 38; 51; 102; 130; 143.
Not all 7 have to do any thing with sin
5 Pss can be used in moments of distress due to sin & to express repose.
25; 38; 39; 51; 130.
51. is a mortal Ps of repentance.
1-2 root of repentance.
3-5 root of sin.
6-14 cleansing by God
15-17. A new heart & a new spirit
18-19. An acceptable sacrifice.
Because of the calamities that struck Israel at the hands of the neighboring nations the community sought deliverance from YHWH. The psalmist squarely put the problem in the hands of God as follows:
- We are your people, thy heritage, You have to protect us.
- Our enemies become your enemies
- Our problems become your problems
1. The enemies of the community 10; 60; 108; 82; 83; 94; 123; 129; 58.
2. The community sin which is the cause of distress 50; 90; 129; 14.
3. A prayer of restoration after a defeat & destruction 74; 80; 85;
4. A lament for the destruction of Jerusalem 79.
5. A Ps of exile 137.; A ps after exile 126.
Community Disorder Ps. Ps 44.
Community lamentation is a lamentation because of the absence of God
- Psalmists recalls Gods deeds 1-3.
- What is the response to the deed of God 4-8.
- What is the present block / impasse 9-16.
- Yet he asserts his fidelity & trust in YHWH. 17-22.
- Bold demand for Gods immediate action 23-26
Israel – enemies
Victory to Israel
God is granting the enemies victory
Israelis enemy is favored
You are punishing me
More then by behavior / destiny
Israel makes a bold request, that the Lord becomes conspicuous by his presence & not his absence, persistent in prayer, faith & fidelity.
4. PSALMS NEW ORDER:
A. Thanks giving Ps
Here the distress is mentioned in the Pss
- Introduction Announces the Theme
- Body of the Ps à He recounts the specific reason for gratitude.
à A description of the situation of distress given
àThen there is a cry to God for help.
à An affirmation that the deliverance was the work of God.
- Conclusion. It briefly repeats the initial expression of thanksgiving & praise.
- Enemies Ps 9:1-12, 18, 34, 92.
- Individual thanks giving from ?? 32, 116 Sin 32:1-7. Other unclear distress 4:1-10, 138
Community Thanks giving: 66; 67; 68; 107; 118; 124
1-5 Violent upheaval, leading the community trembling with fear.
Setting is unknown, it seems to have died down
Vs 3. There are some opponents, all set these natural elements. Sea monsters raging waters
They made a break for freedom, thanked the Lord.
Babylonians could be the enemies of the Egyptian at the exodus.
B. Ps of Confidence: Ps of trust.
They are not concrete. They are more general. They generalize certain aspects of distress. What matters with YHWH are our relation with YHWH is utterly trust worthy in his trust.
These Pss offer faith & a life that has come to joyous trusting resolution. YHWH has shown himself to be proudly reliable & powerful & this is to be celebrated.
Ps 23: It has simplicity. I Know the psalm he knows the shepherd.
God is a shepherd of his people, like the king who needs to be the shepherd of his people
He is expected to look at our needs Is 40:11; Jer23:1-4; Ezi 34:1-3.
Fidelity to Gods name & to his covenant provokes the Lord to take all the more interest in his people.
Words indicate pastoral concern à right path, concerned about the well being of others.
Crook & Staff à sheep. Symbol of concern & dedication.
Banquet – foe: Kings gave their banquet on special occasion. The shepherd King must be a provider.
Priest à special sustainous.
Shepherd is always alert & sensitive to the needs of others.
5. Pss new order.
c. Royal Pss
These are Pss associated in some direct way with the King. It could include individual royal laments. 144:1-11.
Royal Individual thanks giving says 18, 21 intended for recital by or for the king.
Ex Ps 20. Speaks of the king going to battle. Royal Ps are those in which the king is the speaker 18; 101; or he is the focus of attention 2, 21, 45, 110.
W Harrington: The king of Israel had a privileged position in the religion of Israel,. He is the instrument of divine plan. He is Gods representative as well as the spokes person of his people, but above all he is the representative of the dynasty which is the object of divine favor & the recipient of the divine promise. Most of the royal Pss are messianic. The royal Pss are ancient poems darting from the start of the monarchy & they reflect the court language & are ceremonial.
In the southern kingdom there were dynastic kingdoms, promise was attached to the dynasty, messianic Ps. Royal Pss started with the monarchy, their style was of the court, & ceremonial in nature.
D. Wisdom Pss.
They are instructions & are connected with the OT wisdom literature Ps 1; 34; 37; 49; 112, 118. The Wisdom Pss were private non cultic compositions of the sages for instruction & edification ( to help you to grow in maturity)
The characteristics of Wisdom Pss.
- Happy the one / Blessed is the one Ex 1:1; 32:1-2; 127:5; 128:1-2.
- ‘Better’ is the one; It is better to put in the Lord 37:16
- My son. Teacher pupil style 34:12-15; 34:11.
- Using proverbs 37:9,22 for the wicked 37:9,22; 28-29, 34b // Prov 2:21-22.
Ps 111:10 // 1:7 proverb
- Accrostic 34; 37; 111; 112; 119.
The Wisdom Pss focuses primitively on the doctrin of retribution ie virtue is rewarded, & evil is punished. The challenge to the doctrin is also seen in some of the Pss ie evil is rewarded & virtue is punished. & yet faith prevails.
STUDY ON Ps 110.
It is the Ps of order
It is a royal Ps
It shows the loving care of God
It shows the presence of Gods rule it is preexilic
Assurance of victory for Gods priests & kings.
2 Oracles: (divine pronouncements)
1. (1-3) Blessing of the king at the time of enthronement.
2. (4-6) Priestly office of the King
7. Triumphant victory of the King.
Kingship of both God & man is shown, 5th Book of Psalter, Ps of David
Universal kingship of YHWH & assurance of the victory of Gods priest king
The Ps is connected with Kings enthronement
Royal Pss are about the kingship of both God & man.
Vs 1. Lord says to my Lord.
Here both the kingship of God & man are included.
1st Lord is the kingship of YHWH; 2nd kingship is of man, ie Israelis popular king
Sit at my right hand..
During the enthronement of the king the throne was kept at the right hand of God. Ie the right side of the arc of the covenant.
Your foot stool was the enemies, they could be kings of the surrounding smaller kingdom (trouble makers)
Vs 2. The Lord sends fort from Zion (temple of God) your mighty scepter
You will be totally empowered by God, you will rule your foes (enemies) not subjecting to the……….
Vs 3. Since the king had a covenant relationship with god. The people will be with the king in his military parade, led towards by the Lord in the path of the God
OR. The prophet wishes the king that he will have his people / soldiers ready & willing to fight with him in his army in order to defend / protect his kingdom with the blessing of God.
3b. From the womb of the morning like dew you youth will come to you. That young fighters in the king army will be numerous as the droplets of dew.
4. This the high point of the Ps.
The Lord has sworn & will not change his mind
You are a priest for even after the order of Malkhizhdek
God the father put himself under an irrevocable oath that the king is indeed a priest.
The prophet bestows on the king the blessings that he may be a priest king such as Melkhizedec. The reference to Melkhizedec means / suggest that the king may live long like melkhizedec. ( We do not know where Melkhizedec came from or where he went.
5. The Lord is at your right hand of the Lord, he will shatter kings on the day of the wrath. This speaks of the Jewish tradition of the day of YHWH. On the day of YHWH God would show his wrath to the nations of the world. All enemies of Israel would be destroyed in his anger
6. He will execute judgment among the nations, filling them with corpses ( utterly destroying them). He will shatter chiefs, chieftains over the wind of the earth.
7. He will drink by the brook by the way Therefore he will lift up his head
Final victory. Stream = divine power & prosperity. In all the way. Triumphant march.
CONCLUSION: All of us are called to be priests prophets & kings & have a covenant relation with YHWH.