Fr Errol Fernandes.
The main points in the letter is an address to a church in which there is discrimination (rich & the poor) this leads to economic (true religion) persecution.
There are 2 areas that are dealt with under 3 main themes.
iii)wealth. How to pray Mk 11:23-25
James in Greek= Iakohas / Iakoh.
Some times translated as----------Jacob / James.
There are 4 people called James in the NT.
1. James the son of Zebede, killed by Herod Agrippa 2 Acts 12:2 date 44 CE.
2. James son of Alphaeus, mentioned in the list of 12, he is to important person, to use only the simple designation as used in the letter, expected to be known as ‘servant of God of JC’.
3. James the father of the apostle Judas (not Iscariot) mentioned only once Lk6:16.
4. James the brother of the Lord Mt 13:55, Mk 6:3, most are of the opinion that his conversion took place after the resurrection. He is the one who gives a speech Acts 15:13 The most likely author
. Testing of Faith 2-4
STRUCTURE: Doubt 7-8
I 1:1-2 Greeting Wealth & Faith 9-11
II 3-27 Opening Statement. Beatitudes 12
3-18 a) Testing / Wisdom / Wealth -à Temptation 13-18
Quick to hear 22-25
19-27 b) Doer of the word----------à---Slow to speak 26-à-Religion True 1 : 27
Slow to anger 20-21
III 2:1-26 Wealth & Faith
1-13. a) Wealth & Prejudice * There are 3 sections that are
claimed as treaties * -à2: 1-13
-à 3: 1-12
14-26 b) Faith & Work * ------ -Smaller self contained units-à 3 :13-17
---à4 : 1-6
IV 3:1-4,12 Wisdom & Faith
1-12 a) Danger of Sinful Speech *
13-18 b) Gods Gift of Wisdom
4:1-10 c) Repentance from sinful speech
11-12 d) Examples of sinful speech
V 13-5,6 Testing & Wealth
VI 5,7-20 Closing Patience & Prayer.
Individual sayings <
Serves as sayings 1:1-27; 5:7-20
I>1:1-2 Greetings 12 tribes- Xtian community, spread out Diaspora, not addressed to a special community & so along with 1&2 Peter & Jude ( some even count 1, 2, 3. John) regarded as catholic epistle (=universal)
IIa >1:2-4 Joys in trial, testing leads to endurance, & this leads to maturity
= steadfastness ---Tekios = perfection = undivided love Mt5:48
1:5-6 Aptos = freely or generously without measure
l:7-8 Doult = Dupsikos = double minded; asking without confidence, such asking will not receive.
1:9-11. Wealth & Faith
lowly rich I Rich
Boast I Boast
Truly I Ironical
Destruction is described & the fall will be sudden
It will be while the person is in the midst of pursuit. Lk Rich fool
1:12 Beatitudes- Endurance in temptation gains the crown of righteousness
1:13-18. Temptation was not from God but from ones desires. Accept responsibility.
Desireà Sinà Death à
Father of light (Heavenly Bodies)=Godà there is no change in him in regards to his children
Creation of Humans
Of his own he brought us forth<
Creation of Xtian community.
IIb>1:19-27. Doers of the words.
1:22-25. Quick to speak
1:26 Slow to speak
1:20-21 Slow to Anger
What follows is an Explanation / Explication
Anger not= Righteousness
Meekness not= Gullibility = Openness to Gods Revelation
Doers not merely hearers – faith in action.
Only hearers = look intently & forget
Doers = Glance & remember
Speaking à Bridling the tongue is necessary
1:27 True religion = Care & Concern to the marginalized & bring unsustained (moral virtue)
IIIa. 2:1-13.Wealth prejudice, faith in JC
Rich à Poor à Protasis
Then distinction = Judge. Ex. If the rich man becomes poor you make Judgment
Gods choice of the poor à Rejection of this choice
à Oppressed lack of concern
à Blaspheme (Xtians means followers of Xt)
Lev 19:18 Royal Law
But no partiality.
The mercy of a person will ensure that he or she is not judged.
IIIb. 2:14-26. Faith without work.
Examples of faith without works = words which are empty
Works can show faith, but faith alone not shown in action, cannot be proved Abraham- believer
To believe God is one, it is correct, it is what is faith without works is barren<
Faith without work is barren Rahab – unbeliever.
IVa. 3:1-12. Danger of sinful speech -- Teachers.
à Bib in the mouth of the horse.
Tongue à Rudder for Ships
à small fire --great blaze
Tongue-- Blessing / curse
Spring –fresh—Brackish Fig grapes
Tree---------------------------à< vine <
Tongue should be controlled, rudder for ships, a small part is responsible for destruction,
Tongue Blessing Curse
IVb. 3:13-18. Gods gifts of Wisdom.
Wisdom shown by good life = Practical wisdom
Envy not= wise = earthly = unspiritual = devilish
True wisdom is peaceable / equitable / gentle
Full of mercy & good fruit
Jealousy & ambition are divisive
Wisdom makes peace = unites
IVc. 4:1-10 Repentance for sinful speech Desire -- Craving -- Murder -- Disputes / Conflict.
4:3 Reason for answered prayers
Mk 14:32-42 Gethsemane
Not asking leads to not receiving.
Asking for one passion à not receiving.
Prodigal Father Lk 15:11-32.
IVd. 4: 11-12. Examples of sinful speech.
Avoid speaking against one another.
Gossip divides / destroys.
V. 4:13-17. Arrogance.
The future is unknown
How ever we know who holds the future
Planning is good, but obsession with the future is uncalled for
‘TODAY IS THE TOMORROW YOU ARE WORRIED ABOUT YESTERDAY’
CANT CHANGE THE PAST BUT YOU WILL RUIN TOMORROW BY WORRING ABOUT TODAY
V. 5:1-6. The coming of the end
Rich = pass away
Gold silver = Temporary (Mt 6:24-33 Mt 3:34 )
VI. 5:7-20. Closing
Coming for a parousia.
Farmer not= anxious patient
Prophets are examples of endurance
Response----------------------------------Oaths: Lev 19:12; Mt 5:34-37.
Elijah ex. Of persistence & prayer.
1 King 17:17-25.