Ministry of the Word
  Parables Fr Lester


PARABLES                                        Fr Lester                                                             Oct 2007.
I   Jesus preaches the Good News = KOG
He uses every Parable to reveal the reality or Nature of the KOG either how to extend the KOG or how to live it.
* Mk 1:15 He proclaims that the KOG is not a geographical territory, it is the rule of God over our lives- thro words  WORDS (through parables)
·                    It is the highest love ie. the union with God
·                    It is the deepest love
·                    It is the gift of God himself
·                    It is the widest love
·                    It has no boundaries
·                    It is the longest love- ever lasting
* in Mt 4:23 – dwells on deeds. DEEDS he healed, touched, exorcised
II Characteristics of Jesus Parables.
(1) They are easy to understand, even the simplest people can understand. Because he employs concrete ideas, words & pictures.
(2) Masterpiece of story telling. When you compare them with other parables of the times- there is a unique J style
Joachim Jerriamiah:“The conclusion is in evitable that we are dealing with a particular trust worthy tradition. We stand in front of Jesus, when we read the P.
P are words from the mouth of Jesus. J P are masterpieces & they are challenging like any good drama, there is always a growing suspense.
PG Woodhouse defines P as a pleasant yarn to which you listen growing in interest & as you listen the message suddenly pops outs knocks you out & leaves you flat on the back2 Sam12:1-6
In every P of J, J gives you a revelation which demands a revolution & lead you to a resolution
After listening to a P you will never remain the same, you will either be better or worse if you ignore it.
III Def of a P, what is a Parable: The wd P comes from a Gk wd parabole.
(i) para means along side, bolein = throw; two things thrown alongside. At the basis of the P there is always a comparison, there are 3 aspects
(ii) symbols –images that the P uses.
       Reality—beneath the symbol
       Comparison that relates the symbol to the reality.
Ex. Lost Sheep       Symbol—Shepherd
                                Reality--- God
                        Comparison--- Relating God with the sheep.
Just as the shepherd rejoices the finding of the lost sheep so also God rejoices in finding the lost person
(iii) A P is an extended comparison in the form of a story, it narrates a story that never took place but so true to life it could happen to anybody anytime.
IV Distinction between P & allegory: In a P there is only one comparison. In a allegory there are number of implicit comparisons, In Hb masal, in Aramaic mathla. These includes fables, P, proverbs examples, arguments
Ex of Gk parabole Mk 3:23---comparison   
                                Heb 9:9 –Symbol
                                 Lk 4:23—Proverb                     These were alien to Hb thought.
                               Mk 7:17—riddle
                                Lk 14:17--- rule
V  Why did J speak in P: It is an excellent teaching style, abstract reality in concrete terms. J does not do the thinking for us, but As Dodd says he provokes us to thinking. A P tickles us in to thinking—
C H Dodd. Mk 4:11-12—the text is out of place, these wds were written in the early Church. J was rejected.
Is 6:9-10 Hb way of understanding, is this good or that is better    chocolates / strawberry like / hate
A , is this good or that is better    chocolates / strawberry like / hate
A person accepts the P of J or not.
VI A Julicher: One P one message. He rejects the a allegorical interpretation of the P . These are alien to the P of j—what about the Eschatological import. Charles Dodd attempts to place the P in the life of J.
Joachim Jeremiah (i) Each of the P was offered in an actual situation in the life of J.
(ii) unforeseen point but J said it
(iii) mostly concerning in a situation of conflict—J either justifies, defends, attacks or challenges.
(iv) Every one of J parables of J calls for an answer on the spot.
SUMMERY : Each of the P has a definite historical setting. Hence to recover this is a task ahead of us, what did J want to say, at this or that moment. What must have been the effect of what he said to his hearers, so far as it may be possible as to recover the meaning of the P of J. to hear again his authentic voice.                    
There are 3 contexts
1. the original context—The J context.
2. The context of the early church, how did the early church understand it.
3. The Gs context Lk Ch 18:1    He puts it into a context of prayer.
VII Classification of the P of J:
I God offer of salvation to sinners. These P offer the GN that God is offering ( GN to the
2 Accept Gods offer today / now                                                                                 sinners)
3 Live in the Kingdom of life today—(a)with God --(b) neighbour

A Parable 
 B Symbol
 C Reality
 D Comparison
 e. Sins of good people

*The Gs do not only assert that the KOG is here but it also highlights the fact that salvation is being offered to ALL Jews & Gentiles alike. Specially to the despised & the lost ( also to the Pharisees)
*Who are the 10 P addressed to: They are addressed not to the sinners / despised but to the opponents of J.
*The main purpose of the P is not to present the GN (God offer of Saln. to sinners) but the defense /   
*They are self defense P & yet also an offer to the Pharisees to change.
How does J go about vindicating this : by focusing on 3 characters:
a. The sinner
b. The critics themselves / & the self righteous.
c. God.
a. PARABLE               b. SINNERS         c. CRITICS           d. Why does God accept sinners
1.1  Sick & healthy.
1.2. Two sons.
1.3. Two debtors.
1.4. Lost sheep.
1.5. Lost Coin.
1.6. Lost son.
1.7. Wicked vine dressers.
1.8. Great banquet.
1.9. Generous Employer.
1.10. Pharisee & the tax collector.
1.1. SICK & THE HEALTHY       Mk 2:13-17; Mt 9:9-13; Lk 5:27-32, (lost); Lk 19:10

 Sick & the healthy

a. Sick & the Healthy    b .Sick  c. realities   d. as the sick needs the physician, so do sinners     e
                                                                             Sinners need J. sinners immoral life,
                                                                             Prostitutes these are dishonorable occupation.
J seems to imply that the scribes & the Pharisees do not need healing
Express the theme of the P in one sentence: J comes to help the needy but not the deserving Rom 5:6-8;
Rom 12:17-21
e.To help the deserving & not the needy---mix with good people & not the bad
1. 2. TWO SONS          Mt 21: 28-33.

A Parable 
 B Symbol
 C Reality
 D Comparison
 e. Sins of good people
 Two Sons
 First born

d. As the first son repented so the sinner
A person ceases to be good when he loses hope in the conversion of another or a group of another people.
Mention Ex in the Bible who began well & ended badly:   Solomon, Saul.
Mt 21:32 message of the P.
e. When I refuse that somebody can change . I listen to Gods word & do not obey.
1. 3. TWO DEBTORS:         Lk 7: 41-43.
* SETTING: One of the Pharisee / Simon it was a meritious act to invite traveling teachers, specially if they have to preach
* Vs 37 Women stood behind the teacher------------tears wash his feet & anoint

A Parable 
 B Symbol
 C Reality
 D Comparison
 e. Sins of good people
 1st Debtor

d. As the 1st Debtor experienced forgiveness & was grateful & so also sinners will experience, more forgiveness & be more grateful.
In Hb / Aramaic there is no wd for Thank you – Love Vs 42.-------------Deo Bore Koru.
Which ------love
--------gratitude/ thankful
Vs 47 message of the P
Mk 3 : 21 mad things after another. 
e. To feel you have no sins to be forgiven to be content being good with out wanting to be better.
1. 4. LOST SHEEP :                                      Lk 15 : 3-7; Mt 18 : 12-14.
*SETTING : Vs 1-2. Defense against the allegations of the Pharisees , this was addressed to the Pharisees.
                                    Jesus spoke                       1/100 sheep—animals
                                  Early Church                      1/10 coins –love
                Gs writers putting in to perspective      1/12 son

A Parable 
 B Symbol
 C Reality
 D Comparison
 e. Sins of good people

 LOST SON                        Father          God
 Lost Coin                            Women        God
As the shepherd rejoices in finding the lost sheep, so also God rejoices at the return from sin/of son
Lk 15:5; Mt 18:14 Condition----it is found.
In Lk the emphasis is the joy of finding the lost sheep; In Mt 18 : 14 it is on the search.
e. To be unable to experience joy when bad people repent--- to go by justice not by love
1. 5. LOST COIN :    Lk 15:8
The Drajma—The Arab wives headdress with a chain of coins, it seems to be a wedding dowry.
If one coin was missing, she does not light the lamp because it was night & the doors were low, there was hardly any light.
Lost sheep & Lost coin have the same message they are twin parables.
e. To be unable to experience joy when bad people repent--- to go by justice not by love
1. 6. LOST SON   Lk 15:11.            This is a double edged parable
The 2nd part is more important then the 1st.
The parable is addressed to the Pharisees & scribes who were grumbling.
Vs 25 the 2nd part begins. According to tradition the 1st born inherited twice;
if there are 3 sons,       1st =1/2;          2nd=1/4 &            3rd = ¼
There are 2 ways that the son can inherit the fathers property. Father could gift the property during his lifetime
Vs 12 Father give me my share---This was not a gift in fact it meant he saying Father I wish you were dead.
Vs15: --Lev 11:7 – in contact with animals made him unclean, the lowest dredges of society (sinner)
Vs 30: ‘this son of yours’ = not my brother;   loose living = living with prostitutes
e. God is happy when we do not offend him, but happier when he forgives our offences.
Rom 3:5; 11:29-34 Do you feel God is running a great risk of committing himself, or acting in such a way
e. To be unable to experience joy when bad people repent--- to go by justice not by love
1. 7. WICKED VINE DRESSERS:           Mk 12:1-11; Mt 21:33-46; Lk 20: 9-19

A Parable 
 B Symbol
 C Reality
 D Comparison
 e. Sins of good people
 Wicked vine dresser
Wicked vine dresser 

d. As the vine dressers are replaced by others so will the religious leaders be replaced
The man who planed the vine yard is an absentee land lord.
The care & nurturing that has gone into the vine yard, the fence, pit the watch tower he has built. He is expecting the produce of the land..
The KOG will be taken from you just as the vine dressers are replaced, so also the religious leaders will be replaced
Vs 10-11 context of conflict.
e. conflict / authority.
To think what they have is their right therefore they are unaccountable for their use of it.
To be unwilling to change---time honored customers.
1. 8. WEDDING FEAST      Mt 22:11-14; Lk 14: 16-24.

A Parable 
 B Symbol
 C Reality
 D Comparison
 e. Sins of good people
 Wedding Feast
 1st invitee

d. As the 1st invitees were replaced by the 2nd invitees, so the righteous (by law, or Pharisees) will be replaced
e. To be occupied by good things & miss the better things that God can offer & taking Gods blessing for granted.
The wedding feast appears in 2 different forms in Mk & Lk.
This is double edged parable
Mk has transformed it into a allegory.
Lk mostly sticks to the original form.
1. 9. GENEROUS EMPLOYEE                           Mt 20: 1-16.

A Parable 
 B Symbol
 C Reality
 D Comparison
 e. Sins of good people
 Generous Employee

d. As the employee is generous with his money, is God generous with the sinners
This is a double edged parable
2nd par begins at Vs 10.
The parable refers to daily wage earners / workers. A Dinari was usually a days wage for a worker.
6am     1st hr                      At the 11th hr indicated that it was urgent, vine press –onset of rain
7am     2nd hr                     Yield was heavy & the employee needed labourers
8am     3rd hr
6pm     12th hr
If we are generous to the undeserving would we not foster laziness
To envy rather then rejoice at the good of others
Justice vs generosity.
These are 2 parables

A Parable 
 B Symbol
 C Reality
 D Comparison
 e. Sins of good people
 Pharisee & Tax Collector

As the Pharisee was unjustifiable in Gods eye so are the righteous.
d. As the tax collector was justifiable in Gods eye ………………………………………….
e. To boast off good works before God & man & consider themselves morally superior.
      RIGHTIOUS OFFER                ACT               LIVE THE
       ALL ESPECIALLY                 NOW             KINGDOM
The message of Jesus is not only proclamation of the salvation to sinners as seen in the 1st 10 parables. It is also the announcement of judgment, it is also a cry of mourning, it is a call of repentance, in view of the urgency of the crises.
Over & over again Jesus raises this warning. He strives to open the eyes of blinded people asking them to repent today not tomorrow telling them that nothing should prevent them from taking this critical decision. Therefore they are called CRISES PARABLES. These parables are divided in to 5 groups
2:1 Act now before to is too late      10 Parables
2:2 Act now take necessary action     7 Parables
2:3 Act now let nothing impede you  7 Parables
2:4 Act now it is supremely worthy.   2 Parables
2:5 Act now this is your last chance   1 Parables
What Jesus said—CRISES PARABLES—impeding catastrophe—harsh—where the good & bad would be separated—be prepared—negative
Early church context—Parousia (end times)—Glorious coming of Jesus—sudden coming positive not = to original setting—similes reflect the same challenge
-                      .
2:1 ACT NOW BEFORE IT IS TOO LATE.    10 Parables
2:1.1 NOCTURNAL BURGLAR           Mt 24:43-44;   Lk 12:39-40
2:1.2 THE 10 MAIDENS ------Mt 25: 1-13.
2:1.3 THE DOOR KEEPER ---Mt 13:33-37;    Lk 12:35-38
2: 1.4 SERVENT ENTRUSTED WITH SUPERVISION   Mt 24: 45 – 51; Lk 12 : 42 - 46
2: 1.5 TALENTS Mt 25 : 14 – 30; Lk 19 : 12 – 27
2: 1.6 THE WEDDING GARMENTS Mt 22: 11 – 13.
2: 1.7 Simile snare & the unwary (bird) Lk 21: 34 - 36 
2: 1.8                                                         Lk 17: 26 – 27; 28 – 30.
2: 1.9 Simile- Budding Fig tree Mk 13: 28, 29.
           Simile concerning harvest time Mt 24 : 32 – 33; Lk 21 : 29 – 31.
2: 1.10 EYE LAMP OF THE BODY Mt : 22 -23; Lk 11: 34 – 36>
2:1.1 Nocturnal Burglar           Mt 24:43-44;   Lk 12:39-40
1. understanding the P in J ministry (setting) in both the accounts.
The Parable has 2 parts          Vs 43—I         Vs 44---II
The first part goes back to Jesus---actual burglary—some thing topical / Jesus warns of a catastrophe
2. In the context of the early church    II part. 
Son of man—title of the resurrected Xt.
                  ---refers to parousia –end times shift.
                       2nd coming was delayed
On a positive note Mt 24:3---disciples / members
                               Lk 12:41—leaders
3. Symbol of the thief comes for the first time---------------1 Tes 5:2,    2 Pet 3:10
Thief is a figurative form of a sudden eruption (day of the Lord coming as a thief) Rev 3:3; 16:15. Xt as a thief
Jesus comes as a thief for the unbelievers (negative) here the children of light—prepared (positive) the others are taken unaware.
Joachim Jeremiah (JJ) The fact that Jesus relates the P of the burglar to the impeding catastrophe does not mean that the parousia was out side his field of vision, on the other hand. Thefact that the early church related the parable to his return. Does not imply that new nothing of the impeding catastrophe that must preceded
                    --- Crowds
Jesus                                    TRIBULATION-------------Coming of Xt
                  ---   Disciples
2:1.2 THE 10 MAIDENS                    ------Mt 25: 1-13.
1. understanding the P in J ministry (setting).
Word for women –Gk Parthenon—maiden—virgin—of marriageable age.
In Jewish culture the bridesmaid attended the groom.
Wisdom is the practical knowledge of laws of life based on experience. Part of the wisdom is to foresee the future & provide for it
These lamps were fed with oil every ½ hour they had to be filled; the 5 wise maidens foresaw it & carried extra oil.
Lot of haggling – for dowry—it took time.
I don’t know you mean, I have nothing to do with you.
Vs 13: keep awake therefore for you know neither day or hour—this Vs takes away the focus  of the parable
Vs 5 – all slept--- sleeping is not a problem, but foresight was the problem
Vs 13: misses the meaning of the parable
Sleeping is not a problem but failure to provide is a problem.
Pet –phrases—topics Mt 13:35--- door keeper; mt 24:42.
In the setting of the early church it becomes a parousia. In the P mt 24:3 linked to the 2nd coming of J. J is the bridegroom –10 maidens , the expectant Xt community—the delay of the bridegroom is related to the delay in parousia. Maiden judgment –un prepared; warning cry (woke the crowd from their sleep) exaltation of the disciples to be watchful / related.   Mt 24:42.
2:1.3 THE DOOR KEEPER                    ---Mt 13:33-37;    Lk 12:35-38
1. understanding the P in J ministry (setting).
In Mk the command to watch is added to the door keeper other servants entrusted to with respective work.
In Lk the command is given to a number of servants
Mk the man goes on a long journey
Lk it is a wedding feast.
Mk refers to the Roman watchers.
It is a crises parable , in spite of the difference- the core of the Parables is the same.
As soon as the master knocks the door keeper has to open the door
Whom is the original P addressed to 12:22 (disciples)
JJ add to those who claim to posses the keys of the KOG---scribes
In the setting of the early church. Because of the delay again it shifts to the unexpected.
2nd coming Mk Vs 35 the master of the house has become Lord—Kyrios Gk
He went on a long journey implies the time between the resurrection & the 2nd coming.
In Lk Vs 12; 37b. – The master would serve the servants, because no earthly master would behave in this behaviour. Lk 22:27 Jn 13:4-5 Masters 2nd coming.
Mt it is only the door keeper
Lk # of servants it refers to the whole community as they wait for the 2nd coming.
2: 1.4 SERVENT ENTRUSTED WITH SUPERVISION   Mt 24: 45 – 51; Lk 12 : 42 - 46
1. understanding the P in J ministry (setting).
When the master is away vs Who is the faithful servant; who is the wise servant
Why is this P addressed to the early leaders; because of their understanding of the early church..
Delay of the Master was the delay of the Parousia .
In Matthews context :- Master of the house is the son of man, coming to judge the world
Mt would pt to the disciples not to fail in them trust because of the delay
Lk 12 : 41 Interprets as speaking to the apostles Peter said
JJ A sterner reckoning would be demanded of them, if they allow the delay of the parousia to cause them to abuse their office.
2: 1.5 TALENTS Mt 25 : 14 – 30; Lk 19 : 12 – 27
1. understanding the P in J ministry (setting).
Who went on the journey in Mt: ----------
                                               Lk: Nobleman
What does he entrust his servants in Mt:
How many servants in Mt: 3
                                     Lk: 10
In Lk 19: 12 we find additional details
Lk 19 : 27 Around 4 BC Archilous went to Rome to confirm his kingship, 50 Jews went to Rome to oppose he slaughtered them. Jesus uses this P as a crises P warning the audience of a false sense of security
Just as the return of Archilous overtook his opponents, the more you have more will be given to you related to the Sp gifts.
EARLY CHURCH : Delay in the parousia
Mt vs 21 23 banquet of ‘the Lord ‘
Banquet is the eschatological outer darkness – eternal damnation
Merchant becomes the symbol of Xt
Journey is ascension
Return is the parousia
This parousia will usher the Messianic banquet
Lk In both the P Jesus is identified as a master. Who will suddenly return to ask for an account---has a sour note.
2: 1.6 THE WEDDING GARMENTS Mt 22: 11 – 13.
1. understanding the P in J ministry (setting).
Why should a man from a street be expected to have a wedding garment ?
The rabbinical answer is with repentance
Jesus answer is deeper rooted in the OT Is 61:10
He is clothed in the garments of salvation
He is covered with righteousness.
God clothed the redeemer with the wedding garment of salvation.
Mk 2: 18 – 22 Jesus is referred to as a bridegroom
Lk                   P of the Prodigal son—after he repented he is robed.
Mt attaches this P to clear the possibility of misunderstanding which would have risen.
Both the bad & the good were invited, but we need to be clothed with Gods forgiveness & righteousness.
2: 1.7 Simile snare & the unwary (bird) Lk 21: 34 - 36 
2: 1.8                                                         Lk 17: 26 – 27; 28 – 30.
2: 1.9 Simile- Budding Fig tree Mk 13: 28, 29.
           Simile concerning harvest time Mt 24 : 32 – 33; Lk 21 : 29 – 31.
Mk – who stands at the door – messiah, herald, signs of dreadful end negative
The symbol of the fig tree is a positive symbol
A symbol of blessing – Joel 2:22.
To direct the disciples to the harrows of the end but to salvation
Fig tree casts its leaves completely
The return of blessing after it is dead – leaves comes completely.
The great mystery of life over death.
2: 1.10 EYE LAMP OF THE BODY Mt : 22 -23; Lk 11: 34 – 36.
Mt address to the disciples
Lk it is the rebuke to the crowd.
Mt seems to understand   it is an allegory as shown in the context vs 19 understanding in the context of God.
Conclusions of these 10 Parables:
We have to understand the 10 parables in the setting of Jesus ministry
Do not be taken unaware
As a (1) Nocturnal Burglar Mt 24:43-44;   Lk 12:39-40
         (2) -------------
(10) Eye a lamp of the body.
 Act now before it is too late, accept the salvation God is offering you, today.
Early Church because of the delay of Xt glorious coming they interpreted the parable in the Xtological sense that the crises parable became parousia parable.
Nocturnal Burglar   burglar      Just as the house holder.   
Develops the message of the early group. It gives practical ways to respond to the parable
2 : 2.1 DEBTORS         Mt 5:25, 26; Lk 12: 58,59    
2 : 2.2 THE DISHONEST STEWARD    Lk 16: 1 – 8.           
2 : 2.3 THE RETURN OF THE UNCLEAN SPIRIT      Mt 12: 43 - 45a;   Lk 11: 24 – 26.
2 : 2.4 CHILDREN -----MARKET PLACE      Mt 11: 16 – 19   Simile
2 : 2.5 NEW GARMENTS /NEW SKINS Lk 5 : 36 - 39
2 : 2.6 PLOUGH MAN Lk 9 : 61 ,62;   act now take necessary action
2: 2.1 DEBTORS              Mt 5:25, 26; Lk 12: 58,59. 
What is different is imprisonment for debt as a punishment in general this was unknown in Jewish law, this was the Roman law. The Jews found it inhuman
Jesus by giving them this example asks them to act quickly. ACT NOW
Mt Kodrantes = penny;   Lk Lepton = copper    last penny, copper
Because judgment is inevitable, so severe that even the smallest debt (penny) is a serious offence. Therefore act now.
Lk The urgency to take the right decision, after seeing the seriousness of the moment
Mt 5:23,24 The context is reconciliation to offset a more terrible calamity.. Reconcile quickly.
2 : 2.2 THE DISHONEST STEWARD                Lk 16: 1 – 8.
He is an absentee landlord. His estate is managed by the steward. The steward was mismanaging or cheating, or was dishonest, or playing lazy
Vs 3 does not know
Vs 4 He would be dismissed
Jesus is not praising because he is a cheat but because he is smart.
The debtor was either a tenant, they had to pay by giving a specified part of the yield as rent. They could also be whole sale merchants who are given promissory note for goods received.
100 jugs of oil = 800 gallons = yield of 146 olive trees = 1000 Dinaris
100 containers of wheat = 1000 bushels = yield of 100 acres = 2500 Dinaris
2 : 2.3 THE RETURN OF THE UNCLEAN SPIRIT      Mt 12: 43 - 45a;   Lk 11: 24 – 26.
The unclean spirit is a Jewish simile for a demon, The desert is also the abode of the demon ( temptations of Jesus ). He can be satisfied only in a place. He can cause destruction.
House is a symbol of a human person Mt 7 : 24.
In the middle east a person possessed was called the house of a demon
House empty swept & put in order
7 more demons, 7 is a complete number, this shows the completeness of the destruction
There is an implied ‘if’ If he finds the house empty; relapse the fault is not of Jesus but the mans fault itself
Eph 2 :22 A new master takes charge of the empty space. It should be filled by the living place of God.
2 : 2.4 CHILDREN -----MARKET PLACE      Mt 11: 16 – 19   Simile
Played a flute, round dance, men danced
We wielded- mourning at a funeral—women
Lk 7:32 That the children are one group, some of them want to play a joyful game & the girls play sad games, & they are rebuking each other all in one room
Mt                                                                     Lk
JBp --Boys               Girls                              Boys          Girls
        --Joyful               No                                 Joy             Sad
Jesus—Sad                 No
Going by Mt interpretation
1 group represents J & JBp
2nd. Group represents the Jewish authorities.
Take necessary action now.
2 : 2.5 NEW GARMENTS /NEW SKINS Lk 5 : 36 – 39
Vs 39 It has been observed that in the villages / Religious people ( metaphor) there is a stubbornness to cling to what is old, they find it difficult to accept what is new.
2 : 2.6 PLOUGH MAN Lk 9 : 61 ,62;   act now take necessary action
In Palestine there was a very little plough that was guided with the left hand, The farmer when he ploughed had to also keep the plough upright, the right hand was used to guide the oxen.
This required total concentration.
2 combined metaphors; what is the common message—planning ahead
Vs 33 How is it related to the message.
2 : 3.   ACT NOW LET NOTHING IMPEDE YOU.           7 Parables.
Make a list of what is impeding you
2 : 3.1 RICH FOOL                Luke   12:16 - 21.
2 : 3.2 RICHMAN & LAZARUS   Lk 16 : 19 – 31.
2 : 3.3. WEDDING FEAST            22: 1 – 14; Lk 14 : 15 – 24.
2 : 3.4 CAMEL/NEEDLE simile Mk 10:24; Setting & context all are same Mt 19:24.All are same Lk18: 25
2 : 3.5 LET THE DEAD BURRY THE DEAD Mt 8 : 21 -22; Lk 9 :59 – 60.
2 : 3.6 2 MEN IN THE FIELD   Mt 24 : 40; Lk 34 : 36   Metaphor
2 : 3.7 2 WOMEN AT THE MEAL      metaphor   Mt 24 :41;   Lk 17 : 35.
2 : 3.1 RICH FOOL                Luke   12:16 - 21.
Lk 12 : 13 – 15       provides the occasion for Jesus to tell the Parable.
Jesus refuses to enter in to the property dispute , it is not that he had no authority to play the arbitrator.
Vs 15. possession of property is irrelevant to human fulfillment. J regards that earthly wealth is not important.
Vs 16. abundant harvest
Vs 17 – 19. Decision
Vs 22. why is he called a fool. Ps 14:1; Ps 53 : 1; Pvb 1 :7
What was wrong is his decision, he relied more on his possessions.
Vs 20. A farmer was planning for his future. If it is an obstacle then planning your future would be foolish.
Is the P linked to the suddenness of death. ---Vs 21. Summarizes the P
2 : 3.2 RICHMAN & LAZARUS   Lk 16 : 19 – 31.
What is impeding Dives on others
This is a double edged P; 2nd. Part begins the rich man dies Vs 22.
Vs 19 – 21   In this life
Vs 22 – 23 next life
A great chasm has been fixed, it is revocable of Gods judgment.
Why did Abraham turn down the respect, nothing prevented him to reconcile & acting now
The rich man does not believe in the now ness
2 : 3.3. WEDDING FEAST            22: 1 – 14; Lk 14 : 15 – 24.
All the excuses 1.                       2.                             3.                                   4.
None were the concerns were bad, sinful, but they were impediments.
2 : 3.4 CAMEL/NEEDLE simile Mk 10:24; Setting & context all are same Mt 19:24.All are same Lk18: 25
Simile the camel was the largest animal in the desert, The needles eye was a low narrow gate, just wide & high for one person to get thro. The riches are impeding the rich man, for entering the KOG.
2 : 3.5 LET THE DEAD BURRY THE DEAD Mt 8 : 21 -22; Lk 9 :59 – 60.
J calls the man to be his disciple, the man does not object, he expresses his desire to bury his father, the mans father is not dead yet. I will follow you some day later. When ever let nothing impede you not even your family. Perhaps the calling will not come again – ACT NOW. The decision is so important that the decision cannot be put off OR set aside even for the sake of your nearest relative LK 14 : 26.
2 : 3.6 2 MEN IN THE FIELD   Mt 24 : 40; Lk 34 : 36   Metaphor
2 : 3.7 2 WOMEN AT THE MEAL      metaphor   Mt 24 :41;   Lk 17 : 35.
2 : 4.1 THE TREASURE   Mt 13 : 4
2 : 4.2 THE PEARL Mt 13 45 – 46.
Double or Twin P, These are found in the Gs of Thomas in 2 separate places.
1. The hidden treasure was found accidentally. Coins / Jewels many people actually hid their treasures in the fields. The man who finds it is a day laborer. Land is the KOG it is worth selling every thing for it.
This was an accidental find
2. Pearls were highly priced. Divers got them from the red sea & the Persian Gulf. You had to be searching for pearls
Caesars Pearl NECKLACE WAS SOLD TO Brutus for Pd. 10000/-
But the difference is not concerned with the manner of discovery but the contact between the poor labourer & the rich merchant
Both sell all that they have.
2 : 5. 1 THE UNPRODUCTIVE FIG TREE             Lk. 13 : 6 - 9
2 : 5. 1 THE UNPRODUCTIVE FIG TREE             Lk. 13 : 6 – 9
Vs 1 – 5. The context is the call to repentance. The vineyard has all types of fruits not exclusively grapes.
In the Ist three years after the Fig tree grows. Before the fig could be eaten Levi 19 : 23. By another
3 years = 6 yrs. The tree is hopelessly barren. Moreover the fig tree absorbs a lot of nutrients from the vines.
The gardener pleads for one more year, fig trees do not require manure.
Story 5th century Ahigar – folklore—near water transport.
Jesus picks from folklore -- & gives it his own ending—in the folk lore the tree is cut. The request is granted.
The sentence is pronounced. “cut it down’. The intessasary figure comes to the forefront. The LAST CHANCE, context of repentance Joana Ch 3:10.
It has been observed that repentance is the only way to justify our existence. One has no right to live, who has no will to repent. Your Last Chance –ACT NOW.
1. Gods offer of salvation to sinners
2. Accepts Gods offer now !           URGENCY
3. Live the Kingdom life Today in relation to---God
                                                                        --- neighbours.
1. Confident Hope
2. Patience / tolerance
3. Obidience to God / Jesus word
4. Prayer
5. Love of neighbour
6. Stewardship.
7. Mission
8. Readiness for the end.  KYRIOS the master—LORD Crises Parable parousia Parable
3 .1.1. Mustard seed       3 1.2. Leaven
Mk 4 : 30 – 32.                          Mt 13 : 33
Mt 13 : 31 – 32                         Lk 13 : 20 – 21.
Jn 20 :
3 1.3 THE SOWER.           Mk 4 : 3 – 8; Mt 13 : 3 – 8; Lk 8 : 4 – 8.
3 1.4 PATIENT FARMER     Mk 4 : 26 - 29
3 !. 5   THE UNJUST JUDGE            Lk 18 : 2 -8. CONFIDENT HOPE
3 1.6 THE UNOBLIGING FRIEND         Lk 11 : 5 – 8. 
General setting in the ministry of Jesus. There are 6 Parables in this group, what is the occasion for Jesus to tell these. Seeing the poor response to the Gs. The disciples experienced discouragement & frustration. How different was the response from the time the Gs were announced. There was a growing opposition to the Gs ? Why were these people opposing it ? Were there not large numbers accepting the GN. In response Jesus gives us 4 contrast Parables
1. Mustard seed.                                 These 4 were given to reassure
2. Leaven                                                           the disciples
3. Sower.                                                      That the kingdom
4. Patient farmer.                                               Will triumph.
Why are they called contrast Parables ?
Because in the contrast parables the beginning is contrasted with the end.
In the Jewish mind, they are not concerned with the process with the How (A)*****X*****(B)
In addition to the 4 contrast parables Jesus thought 2 parables for the basis of confidence.
1. Unjust judge.
2. Unobligating friend.
At times we as the disciples will experience discouragement & frustration. We can read these 6 parables in confidence hope, & here the voice of Jesus speaking to our hearts.
3 1.1. Mustard seed       3 1.2. Leaven
Mk 4 : 30 – 32.                          Mt 13 : 33
Mt 13 : 31 – 32                         Lk 13 : 20 – 21.
Jn 20 :
These are twin parables & they are chosen because they are related in content.
INTRO The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed.
( KOG is not like a seed, it is like a tree; The KOG is not like the leaven but like the dough)
What ‘is like’ in Aramaic it is the case with the KOG as with a mustard seed.
It is again discouragement, it is the smallness of Jesus band of followers , the occasion of the utterance when they expressed does not of the how of the mission.
How different was the beginning of the Messianic age announced by Jesus. Could this wretched band of many ill reputed characters be the wedding guests of Gods redeemed community---YES said Jesus.
He gave the example of the mustard seed, the mustard seed is as small as a pins head, the smallest of all the seeds on the earth. When it grows it becomes the biggest of the shrubs, by the lake of Genneserath, about
8 – 10 feet, birds build their nests in these shrubs.
All the details are given to show the difference from the beginning & the end.
                                        seed    O******X*******Tree
LEAVEN, a scrap of leaven, absurdly small , becomes bread for the great meal. 1 Cor 5 : 6; Gal 5 : 9.
This is a contrast parable
                                        Leaven   O******X*******Dough
                                                         Forget the process
Both the parables depict the sharp contrast Mt / Lk keep them together as a double Parable.
The tree that shelters the bird is a common metaphor, for a mighty kingdom & protects it vassals.
Tree metaphor: simile of the high tree   which symbolizes world power Ez 31; Dan 4. & so confident hope
                                            Tree + dough metaphor = Rom 11:16
Efficiency (housewife) & witnessing mustard seed are needed---Victorious Xtians
Great projects have humble beginnings
Impressive results, week instruments.
God chooses the available not the able
I become a leaven by becoming a mustard seed
I change others by changing self.
3 1.3 THE SOWER.                   Mk 4 : 3 – 8; Mt 13 : 3 – 8; Lk 8 : 4 – 8.
 Contrast parable                                                             T
                                     Seed   O******X*******   30 / 60 / 90
                                    Beginning       process                last.
In order to appreciate the parable in the :
(a) Original setting we must reflect t5he interpretation of the converted to stand fat in times of persecution & against worldliness.
(b) In the ministry of Jesus: discouragement of the meagerness of the followers , apparently ineffective preaching of Jesus. Mk 6 : 5.   hostility Mk 3 : 6. increased desertion Jn 6 :60.
All this appears to contradict Jesus claims of his mission.
© Salient features of the parable. Contrast parables focuses on the beginning & the end ( later on in the early church it will become an allegorical interpretation).
Is the sower careless, had he little experience in his job, was he wasting a lot of seed.
First we are made look at the many  frustrations the sower had to face, but in the end the harvest is
30 / 60 / 90. fold. ( Thomas has60 – 120 fold)
This is the abundance of Gods surpassing human measure.
Therefore   HOPE-------------contrast few seeds--------------yield 30 / 60 / 90.
Every dark cloud has a silver lining
Hope, Wait, God will work.
Which soil do I identify with.  
3 1.4 PATIENT FARMER     Mk 4 : 26 – 29
INTRO The parable is intended as a contrast by the effort of the zealots to bring about the Messianic difference. By forcing & over throwing the Roman yoke. Some of the disciples were Zealots
SETTING IN THE MINISTRY OF JESUS :Impatience of the section in ushering the KOG. Why does Jesus not act. From the Gentile yoke they see as a denial of his claim of his mission
                                    KOG O******X*******   30 / 60 / 90 HARVEST
We are confronted with a sharp contrast of his activity & the harvest. The farmer is described as a sleeping & getting up---sickle.
REFLECTION :      A committed person is a patient person
CONCLUSION : The end contrasts the beginning
                              Insignificant beginning --- triumph
                                   Fruit is the result of a seed.         
               The infinitely great is already active in the infinitely small       
                                       Believe in 60----100
                        On what ground does this confidence rest.
3 !.5   THE UNJUST JUDGE            Lk 18 : 2 -8. CONFIDENT HOPE
Understanding the parable. Though Luke links the parable to the Pharisees & tax collectors, Lks intension was to provide guidance on the right way to pray. The Pharisees & the tax collectors is not about prayer it is about Gods offer of salvation to sinners
Lk 18 : 1. similarly the unjust judge is not primarily in pray, because if it would be prayer, the central figure is not the women but God.
Setting in the ministry of Jesus: Why did Jesus tell this parable—the answer is in Vs 7,8. ‘faith on earth’ Have faith & confidence & God will answer will answer your prayers.
If the judge who is considerate finally needs the widow ‘ after a LONG DELAY ‘
How much more will God listen to the patient, one who waits for the Lord, therefore God intervenes.
Salient features : The widow is not necessarily an old women, when she brings her case before the single judge not a tribunal this could be a money matter, either a debt, pledge, portion of her inheritance withheld from her, she could be too poor to bribe the judge, the judge was perhaps waiting for the bribe—he yelled because she was getting on his nerves
Vs 8b assumes it is addressed to the disciples
Called forth by the grief & anxiety in the face of persecution, injury, trials, martyrdom a final failure of faith.
Endurance thro faith – believing in prayer
3 1.6 THE UNOBLIGING FRIEND         Lk 11 : 5 – 8. 
Focus is on the friend.
INTRO : The parable gives a vivid description of the condition in Palestine village, no shops open before sunrise, the supply of bread required for the household was to be made early in the day. In the village it is known which family could have extra bread.
Setting in the ministry of Jesus: Lk is tried smitted in the context intro regarding prayer, this is the secondary context. The actual context would be ‘ confident hope ‘
Salient features : ‘ Leand me “ 3 loaves a minimum quantity for a persons food, house dark , little oil, faint light, door is bolted & locked., the door with the iron bar & rings., The reference to children & myself in bed seems to be a peasants home. It was the imperative duty of the east to entertain guests.
JJ. The man will give what is asked not    the petitioner is a friend so that he doesn’t loose face in the matter
God will intervene because his reputation is at stake.
Central figure is the guy inside.
3 2 PATIENT & TOLERANCE           The wheat & weeds / net with good ? bad fish
3 2.1 WHEAT / WEEDS    Mt 13 : 24 – 34.
3 2.2 NET GOOD DRAGNET / BAD FISH          Mt 13 : 47 – 50.
Intro to both the parables. At the time of Jesus there were various attempts by different groups of people to set up a pure community, acceptable to the messiah, when he came.
a. You have the Pharisees they were the true people of God because they kept the law. When the Messiah came he would do away with sinners.
b. Essenes they were beyond the Pharisees they endowed to form a community of the new covenant.
c. JBp movement—directed at gathering the saved   Mt 3 :12.
d. When Jesus came he did the opposite none of his followers were found by Pharasic standards—these sinners have no standing before God—any body & every body go get the labourers / wedding.
Jesus opponents = followers not = Pharisee standard—own no standing before God. ( the disciples did not fall under the standard of Pharisee & essenes )
3 2.1 WHEAT / WEEDS    Mt 13 : 24 – 34.
Gk Zizania not = Darnels (weed)--  bearded wheat in the early stages hard to distinguish
Q by the servants should we pull out the weeds—this was the custom—response of the master –leave it alone—because of the large quantity.
3 2.2 NET GOOD DRAGNET / BAD FISH          Mt 13 : 47 – 50.
There were 2 boats & the net that linked the boats, fish of every kind ie. Good & bad, edible & non edible, none edible fish ie fish without scales, barbut it has an appearance of a snake, look at the fish & separate them immediately. Disciples said do the separation now, Jesus said wait.
Both the parables were eschatological in nature, concerned with the finer judgment, in the first parable
(wheat) premature separation is expressly rejected patience / tolerance till the harvest.
Refrain from judging
Jesus himself gives 2 reasons—you & I are not capable of separation    Mt 13 : 49
Most important Mt 13 : 48 God has fixed when the net is full.
The last opportunity for repentance has not yet run out
Confir parable of the fig tree Lk 13 : 6 – 9.
Till then all false zeal must be checked;
first the field must be left to ripen the net must be cast widely.
3rd. Every thing else left to God in Faith till the hour comes.
Reflection : Good people help bad people by example, Bad people help good people to test their love.
Each of us have a Darnel / wheat.
1. THE 2 FOUNDATIONS              Mt 7: 24 – 27; Lk 6 : 47 – 49.
2. THE 2 SONS                                 Mt 21 : 28 – 32           See (1.2) Gods Offer of salvation Sec I
3. THE SOWER   ---------------------Mk 4 : 14 – 20; Mt 13 : 18 – 23;   Lk 8 : 1 – 15.
1. House = Life
     Rock = Wd of God
3. This is a development
(1) Intro : It misses the eschatological point it is speaking of here & now., it is an exhortation to the
‘converts’, to examine & test the authencity of their commitment.
(2) Setting in the ministry Of Jesus: --‘confident hope’
(3) Interpretation of the parable in the context of the early church.—they were characterized by the delay of Jesus & the mission to the Gentiles.. The church interpreted them allegorizing them. They expanded the meaning of the parable by finding comparisons in the details.
(4) Salient features in the allegorisation   a. seed = wd of God           Soil   Type of people    Fate of the Wd
                                                                   b. Sower = Jesus                Path
                                                                   c. Different types of soil    Rocky
The # of times the ‘WORD’ appears                                                 Soil
1. Preacher preaches the Wd   Acts 8 : 4
2. The Wd is received              I Thess 1 : 6; 2 : 13; Acts 17 : 11; James 1 : 21.
3. With Joy 1 Thess 1 : 6.
4. Persecution arises A/c of the Wd 2 Tim 1 : 8; 2 : 9.
5. Wd is the cause of stumbling 1 Pet. 2 : 8.
6. The Wd grows Acts 6 : 7; 12 : 24; 9 : 20; Col 1 : 6.
7. The Wd brings fourth fruit Col 1 : 6 : 10.
Reflection: How is the message of the interpreters related to the parable of the 2 foundations
3 .4   PRAYER there are 2 parables that teach on prayer.
1. PHARISEE & THE TAX COLLECTOR ( originally 2 p)--- Lk 18 : 9 – 14   (1.10)
2. THE UNJUST JUDGE---------------(3 1.5) Mt 13: 47—50.
3. UNOBLIGATING FRIEND   (3 1.6)   Lk 11: 5-8
1. Intro: In the time of Jesus it was not a lesson on how to pray, but Gods offer of salvation to sinners
2. Setting in the ministry of Jesus: Vs 9 why Jesus told the parable. To some who trusted in themselves that they were righteous & regarded others with contempt.
3. Setting in the Gs Vs 1. ( Prayer & Unjust Judge); Lk will link these 2 parables on how to pray
4. Salient Features :
a. Pharisee
b. Vs 9. addressed, trusted in them
c. Vs 10. 9am---3pm
d. Vs 11-13. Pharisee restrains from 1 Cor 6-9 = swindler; seeking Gods;          He           Promise of the
e. Heart is the seat of sin Vs 13.                                             guidance      acknowledges       age to come
 beating is an expression of deepest contrition                                  his own better self to God
Context at the time of Jesus : Pharisees prayer, --the publican stands—at the time of Jesus—He does not lift up his eyes & hands to heaven—His head is bowed—His hands folded on his breast—expression of deep despair—because of his sinful way of life—a person with no hope, his situation is bad, cannot even cry.
5. The CONCLUSION is beyond the capacity of the heaven, God be merciful to me a sinner Ps 51:13;
Vs 19. Jesus welcomes the hopeless despairing sinners & rejected the self righteous.
+ve ---ve Pharisee/ Tax collector.
1. Good Samaritan              Jn 15 : 12.   Lk 10:25—37.
2. Last Judgment
3. Unfaithful servant
1. Setting in the ministry of Jesus: A lawyer asked a layman, Jesus about the way to eternal life, perhaps the man was disappointed. In his mind he asks Jesus to define where within the Jewish community the limits of loving (demand of love- love has no limits) should be drawn. Who is my neighbour was justifiable.
For the Pharisee it excludes non Pharisees For the Essinees it excludes people of darkness.
Mt 5: 24 Hate your enemies; exclude personal enmities, certainly not Samaritans
Vs 30 descent Jerusalem—Jericho—20 km long—notorious for robbers
Vs 34 wounds—assaulted—defended himself –priest & Levite—probably regarded him to be dead—Lev 21:1 grounds –Law.—Priests were forbidden to touch the dead bodies with the exception of his relatives—Levites required to be pure in the course of cultic activities.
Levites—anti clerical—Israelites; Jesus said Samaritan that was a shock. In 6,9AD the Samaritans had defiled the temple court.
Samaritans response: with his head gear / undergarments cleaned him, poured oil that was used for soothing, used wine that was used as a disinfectant..
Reverse order of revenge—took care paid-- +ve. Emphasis
Vs 29 object of love
Vs 36. Subject of love
Put you self in his place, who needs love from me--   & you supply that love
The parables that come under this section are after coming judgment event / warning against
2 1.4 Servant / .Supervisor.
2 1.3 Doorkeeper.
2 1.5 Talents.
2 2.2 Dishonest Steward.
2 5.1 Unproductive Fig Tree.
Most of the Time the parables were addressed to the leaders of the people, The Scribes, Now Gods Judgment is at hand.
2 1.4 Servant / .Supervisor.
Fusion of Parables: Parable of the doorkeeper----------- Mk 13: 33-37; Lk 12: 35—38.
In the Marken form of the parable of the doorkeeper, Mk has 2 features from another parable
13: 34 Master journeys to a far off country—this comes from the parable of Talents.
13: 34. Handling over the authority to the servant comes from the P of the servants entrusted with supervision 
In the Luken form 12: 35—38. It features the master waiting of the servant at the table.
Simile as the serving Saviour Lk 22:27
Symbolic Action of Jn 13 : 1
2 1.3 Doorkeeper.
Parable of the closed door   Lk 13; 24.
When we glance at the Mt p we see that this p has the conclusion of Mt 25: 10—12.
The 3 similes related in illustrative content Mt 7:13.---22 followers, 8:11    following
Mt 7:13 +Mt 25:10—12. +7:22+8:11 ----CLOSED Door.
3 7. MISSION  
1. Great Supper ------------------ Mt 22:1 –14; Lk 14: 16—24.
This p is come down in a double tradition
In Mt + Lk also in Thomas Gs.    What are the common features
Refusal of the invitation by the invited & the replacement by the next best
IN the ministry of Jesus: Like a lost sheep—Labourers in the vineyard
These are applied to the critics of Jesus or opponents of Jesus to indicate the GN against them. So if God wants to offer the GN to sinners –which you have spurred.
Differences between Lk, Mt, & Th.
Mt gives the story an allegorical interpretation & the second parable 22: 14 adds generalized conclusion
                             Lk / Th     ///ties                        Mt
                                 Man                                    King
          Great banquet / banquet         marriage feast for the kings son
                    Single servant                          number of servants
                                     1st. delivers the invitation, 2nd brings the message, feast is ready
In 14: 22 It is for the expected, 2nd. Invitation to the uninvited, Summon more guests, go outside the city, go beyond, go beyond the city walls of the city.
1st. invitations in the city—publicans/sinners –outsiders=gentiles
This is interpreted with a military command
Do you see any thing common today ?
Salt / Light Mt 5: 13—16. ------to all in the house.
Lk 11:33 that all who enter may see the light. see the light goes beyond the house.

Mt 10: 16. / Lk 10:3

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