Ministry of the Word


Fr Fritzgerald   6/1/2008.
1. Paul
1.1 Paul the person Paul Achtimeir TPIP Banglore 1990, p 757 -765.
1.2 Events in Pauls life—Birth 1-10AD., Born in Tarsus, modern day Turkey. Conversion of Paul after the death of Jesus in 37AD. First writing 1 Thess 49-50 Ad, 1 Cor 53-55Ad. He was executed in around 62-67AD.
With regard to Pauls writings
Genuine Writings  ------         (7 Books) 1 Thess, Gal, Phil, 1 & 2 Cor, Rom Philomon.
Doubtful / Genuine Writings (3 Books) 2 Thess,   Col, Eph.
Not written by Paul ----------( 3 Books)   Titus, 1 & 2 Tim,
Gaius Julius Caesar 100BC- 44BC Transferred the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire
Dictator Perpetuus = Dictator for life.
Corinth 40 miles to the SW of Athens in between 2 parts Lachaum in the Bay of Corinth & Cencheae on the Sarconic bay. Corith was a city between 2 port cities.
2.2 (a) Harpers B map journey of paul all these in Asia Minor- Modern day Turkey.
2.3 (b) Greeko Roman       /--Patricians-------------noble Senators---Equestrians,---Knights
Freeborn citizens-= Cives/                                                    Merchants.
                                          -- Plebians-------People of Ordinary Class.
Freed Men= Liberti
Slaves= Servi
3.1 (a) Chloe’s- rich House Hold
1 Cor 16:8 6th day of Sivam, 50 days after Passover. (May – June)
1. 1 Cor 1:1-3 Greeting ---Person (a) sending a greeting to person (b).
                                       --- Thanksgiving
                                       Body of the letter, contains a direct appeal
                                       --- Greetings, it always concludes with Grace
2. Paul calls himself an apostle                 Vs            Disciple
                                      apostoloi                              Mattertes.
                                 One who is sent                Freely Willingly attaches himself
                           Out to accomplish a                to some body to learn something
                         Certain task                               from the other
    Paul is affirming his Apostolic authority
3. Cor are called saints, holy
4. Grace is unmerited it is a free gift of God, Grace is necessary for faith, one who has faith is    
    at peace with God.
Pastoral Reflection : All of us are saints- the call to holiness is for all
The Call = Lt Vocare = vocation – Specific approach to the gentiles.
                                                    -- universal – personal work.
Lev 11:44-45 Saints are set apart for God---( they have been sanctified by Xt ) –
Saints are claimed by God.
For P all Xtians are called to be saints regardless of Or moral life
1 Cor 1: 4-9. Thanksgiving.                                                                               Speech
1. Xtians = have a call to holiness = enriched life with Charismata= Sp gifts/---Knowledge.
The problem is that the Xtians have a Sp Gift but do not however use them in service of love of the community.
Pastoral Reflection: Faith is not = an individualistic pietistic experience
                                              Not = an internal attitudinal adjustment
                                           But must be lived in communion with others.
Faith in Xt must be seen in + the choices we make.
                           + the decisions we make.
                        + The actions we take.
                  + the way we treat ourselves & we treat others
I ---^----Self---Others---things/ money---environment
I & the cross---I & Others
              Faith-------1----------Horizontal dimension           
                                1—Vertical Dimension
1 Cor 1:10-17.
1. Paul appeals to the Cor believers not to be Schismatic- he is emphasizing that all the
    believers in Xt are all divided.
2. No confusion between unity & uniformity Rm 14 : 1 but P appreciates this differences in
3. Use of the term Adelphos ( in 1 Cor he has used it 38 times) = generic term for bro. &
    sister. An effort to reconcile resocialise Cor believers who belong to different language
    groups, social backgrounds, who are now united in the baptism c Xt.
4. Issues: Jealousy & quarreling as to who is a greater leader—Paul ?, Apollos?
    Chephas ? (Peter)—JXt is the true leader.
5.  Vs 17.P understands his calling is not = as baptizing but as a preacher & evangelizer
      9:19-23; 3:6
6. Cor easily swayed by the rhetorical ( answer is contained in the Q), oratorical skills wisdom-  
    knowledge--power & status--but true power of ^ shown thru the cross-with the D/R of Jesus.
Reflection:1. To whom do I belong. Xtians—Xt Vs other allegiances-Idolatry-work-
    possessions—status-fame-fortune-dreams. Secondary not imp:- 5:10-11;6:9;10:7
2. With regards to division in the church: Unity does not mean uniformity, there could be unity 
    lived in diversity.
3. No hero worship: Who are my heroes. Every human however great has his imperfections.
                                                                                          Podium= Gk podos= feet
1 Cor 1:18-25. Xt true power true wisdom:
1. Cultured is the speech Vs folly of the cross; worldly values Vs Xtian values
    Those who are perishing Vs those who are being saved
2. The cross of Xt = a scandal Gk Skocndalon / a stumbling block; how can one save others by
1 Cor 1: 26-31. Xt the power & wisdom of God
Pauls application to the auditors   wise = Gk Sophos- Sophia Philosophy—love of wisdom
Powerful=dynastos- dynasty
Highborn = eugenes—eugenetic—genetic
God chooses the foolish, the week, & the low born
Choose not election—no boasting
Wisdom of the world Vs true wisdom = xt 1:24.
Salvation, redemption, saving; for paul salvation not= in acquisition of wordly possessions= righteousness / holiness & redemption.
Righteouness being in the right relation with god; redemption saved by the one who is innocent
Vs 31 boasting in the lord.
26-31: Boasting in wise power- unacceptable
Boasting in the Lord- appropriate & fitting
Reflection: (1). Boasting about our personal achievement to be avoided but rejoice always in the Lord for all the blessings
2. Jesus mixes with all, the Pharisees , tax collectors, prostitutes, rejects. Am I hospitable & open to those who have been marginalized in society. 1 Pet 4:17. The judgment of God begins not with outsiders but with the house hold of God.; Rom 10:3 What can get me in rt relationship with God; Phil 3:9.
1 Cor 2:6-16. 2 Wisdom, 2 Spirit, 2 kinds of people
1 Cor 2: 1-5. Proclaiming Xt Crucified.
1. The main teaching is that P is proclaiming a crucified Xt.
2. He gives witness in his proclamation- behaviour
2.2 hyperbole= exaggeration
2. P gives a list of his inadequacies: fear, trembling/ lack of wisdom
rhetoric (gives an answer in the Q) speech / writing said to influence others/ half truths
rhetorical= style os speech where there is a Q in a statement, not provided c an answer.
3. P humility is exemplary; message is crucified Xt, messenger is Paul, speaks with frailty, fright, trembling.
Reflection: 1. All those who are baptized have a common denomination & ie Jxt crucified
2. All Xtians should take comfort from P of inadequacies 2 Cor 4:7. ^ Power & ^ Sp is so effective that it manifests itself, to all sorts of damage
3. ^ permits crystal clear water to flow thro rusty pipes.
4. Don’t go thro the scruples, allow the scruples to go thro. You.
5. The scripture is not only for information, is the GN transforming you.
1 Cor 2:6-16
Wisdom= deeper knowledge= mystery that was +hidden; +not=understood by human rules;+ but now available to those who are spiritual thro ^s revelation.
Vs 10---
Vs 11--- Several oppositions.
4. Anthropology ( Body, soul, & Sp) = psychikoi= unspiritual Vs pneumatito (air)=Sp
Reflection: What is P vision of the world. For P all that ^ created is good but it is corrupted by human sinfulness Rom 1:8-28; Rom 8:17-25 The world is good but corrupted by sinfulness. ^s redemptive purpose is at work to save the world in Xt.
Rom 12:1 Tf ^ is good & all he has created is good therefore the human person he has created is Good. Therefore the need to make a proper choice + decision to honor our bodies.
Ch 3 : 1-4. Division in the Cor Church.
1. Cor Xtians are babies )Gk Sarkinos= in the flesh Vs of the Sp) in Xt = new comers = novices.
2. What is the problem of the Cor. Church- Jealousy; Quarreling; groupism, factionalism
Ch3 Vs 4. what are the consequences of this, focus on individualism ur destroying the community. Boasting about your leaders & denigrating the others.
3. For P a Sp person is an adult who is not prone to these elements.
Rom 8:15            The life of faith is a life of growth
Gal 4:6                         life of faith is
Phil 3:15                     life of maturing.
Reflection: 1. The Cor Ch is the mother of all subsequent squabbling Chs – shame of the Ch is the divided Ch.
Episkopos -- CCBI Conference of Catholic Bishops of India --- Latin Ch
Episcopal -- CBCI   Catholic Bishop Confrence in India
                  --Syro Malabar
To be different does not mean one is wrong
Rom 14:1 welcome each other in love, we have different chairisms / Gifts.
How must we handledecent & difference.
1 Cor 3 : 5-9. Apollos & Paul ; Models
Acts 18:27 Jews from Alexandria brought into faith from Precilla & Aquilla ^ was responsible for the growth of Faith, ^ was working thro them. 3:5 =servants=deconia= decons
3:9 = fellow workers.
3. Agrarian to architecture; metaphor a wd used to describe to show the same.
Reflection: 2. Apollos watered what God planted
3. Change in the imagery.
Reflection: 1. Church= always a work in progress, already, but not yet ready., what elements of the Christian life needs to be perfected
2. Who are my role models.
3. What is the purpose of having a role model.
How do I choose one. (a) choose somebody who already knows the way.
Goes         the               good advice bad example
Shows      way
1 Cor 3:1-4. Paul=Paul=the father responsible for the children
Those who pass the test would be rewarded.
3:5-9.Paul the planter who works the field
1 Cor 3:10-15. The foundation of each persons work; Paul the builder who lays the foundation, on to which one will build
Vs 13.Rom 2:16; Phil1:6; 1 Thess5:22 works would be tested with fire Deu 32:22; Amos7:4;Mal 3:2
--- To consume, to destroy Deu 32:22
---To refine, to purify Is 43:2
In these Vs P has got individual responsibility to build a foundation—building with the matter3:13-15.
Reflection1. Every Christian is supposed to build on the foundation of JC
What am I to build on , don’t look on specific material, build with what ever you have.
2. How am I building my talents for the building; building my community, Church; Nation.
Am I waiting for the right time
Words of caution: clericalization of the laity; Christe Fediles Laici deals with the role of the lay people in the life of the Church.
Promise of reward—Faith---Good works
A person has faith & No time for work.
1Cor 3:16-17.You are ^s templeEzk 37:26-27; where himself resides, ^s warning ^s temple is holy
7 Concluding statements:
1. The Cor Xtians belong to ^ in Xt not to Paul & Apollos.
2. Each Xtian is expected to bea builder to produce works / fruits
3. The foundation upon which that the beliver is building is that of JXt.
4. The works of the individual Xtian ie is to say how they build upon Xt will be judged on the
    Judgment day c appropriate reward.
5. The potential for destruction remains for each individual.
6. In the community Xtians are more then just a building, thet are the temple, a holy place
    where ^ resides so that they too may be holy.
7. ^s sp or ^ resides in them
1 Cor 3:18-23. Self awareness and having proper perspective.
1. Problem—Some of the Cor do not have a proper assessment of them selves
Paul warns them Vs Self Deception; for P disciples are those with true wisdom.
Vs 19b. – Job 5:13.
Vs 20 – Ps 94:11
1. Like the believers of Cor community we shall avoid over estimation of ones self.
    Do not aim for too little in life.
1 Cor 4. Ministry of the Apostles.
1. Paul is criticizing recent Xtians, recent converts lording over others.
2. The apostle should exemplify the Gs. bless endure, conciliate Vs 12-13.
3.(a) The hardship that P gives has 2 fns.—The power to endure the suffering does not depend on ones strength, but by holding to God in strength.
(b) Gs does not promise inoculation from distress, ^ gives us strength to overcome.
4. The Cor. Believers are divided—there are those who follow the norms of the world & those who are following Xt.
5. Some believers have anticipated the future into the present Ex. They have appropriated future rewards in to the present
6. Vs 18. Some believers have become puffed up & arrogant & P promises that he would visit these people as a father to disciples or as an apostle c love in a spiritual gentleness.
7. Gs & the KOG depends not on talk but on the power of the Gs c which P comes to judge the believers
Reflection : 1. As believers don’t talk the talk , walk the talk
2. The message is seen effectively when it is seen in action 1 Pet 4:17     Judgment.
1 Cor. 5:1-13. A stain within – A threat to holiness.
1. Immoral sexual relations = porneia; graphos= writing wd or picture.
Vs 2. P does not address the man who has done the deed, focus is on the community; The community has an obligation in a particular way, to reaffirm & establish the Xtian community, to
    cast the wicked out of the community.
2. Vs1. How is the Cor community to tolerate this behavior.
3. There f fore P says that the entire community should go into mourning; because of the failure,
     they do not care for one another.
Vs 5 The church has the responsibility to be holy, be separating the offenders you bring in to him
      that what he does is wrong, change his behavior& come in line with the teachings of the Gs.
4. Vs 6. Clean out the old yeast—feast of the Passover Festival. Ex 13:7 & the feast of the
    unleavened bread.
2 Vices replaced Kakia & poneria                        replaced by 2 virtues of sincerity & truth.
   Depravity, evil, malice, wickedness.
Vs 11. Avoid immoral people
(a) Avoid Xtian immoral people ( adolphoi) bro & sisters in Xt. & not all immoral people because
      avoiding all of them would be impossible.
(b) List of vices
© Action to be taken no fellowship no mingling
(d) responsibility of the community is to preserve its ^ given holiness by cleaning out , driving out
     the violators.
Reflection:1. We Xtians raising out the Qs about another persons behavior, being self righteous, Q
                  am I the brothers keeper, tough love does it condone all behaviors.
2. (a) meddling ////// (b) Proper Xtian responsibility
                        //////--- grace area  prudent & discrete
3. Canon 1093 public property—decency- impedimenta ion—causes scandal to the faith of the people.
1 Cor 6:1-11. Law suits among believers.
Greeko Roman world only the rich wealthy powerful would take people to court. P says that if you would like to settle deputes settle them within the community; The judges might not do what is right & just
6:1 These judges must be despised ( because they have no place in the church) Vs 4.
Vs 6. These judges are unbelievers
6:1 who can settle disputes ‘ saints’, saint are believers who have respected to the call of the Gs. Dan 7:22; 12:3; Is 24:21-22. Believers will be a part of the heavenly courts. The believers will be there & even the Angels will be judged Gen 6: 1-6.
4. P uses irony-you do not have any one to settle disputes that you have to go to civil courts. Work out your differences among yourself amicably.
Vs 9-10. List of vices, baptism sets these apart as ^s children
6:7 hyperbole= exaggeration
Reflection: Differences & disputes are a existential reality in life & the church then & now.
Resolving conflicts speaks about a healthy community, what is important the respect for another.
Vs 2. Trivial cases, conflict resolution we need the skills of the community- maximum justice
Greeko Roman world----------husband + wife----girl—slave---prostitute
                                                      I—boy—slave—male prostitute.
Some Cor practiced this , this was immoral for P
1 Cor 6: 12-20. Glorify God in body & Spirit.
1. Vs 12 P says all things are good but not all things are beneficial 10:23 Ill not be dominated by any thing
2. He uses the imagery of stomach & food for P food & stomach is not important. What is the important the close connection between the body & the lord. This is the Lord that is good raised from the dead. We are Xtians that are purchased by the new owner + we are not our own. Ransom Theology.
3. soma = body appears 30 times in 1 Cor, human body as a whole, the whole self is owned by the Lord therefore we need to live a life proper live a life for Xt.
4. P believes that all believers belong to the Lord not to a prostitute.
5. Vs 16. Ref to Gen 2:24
Vs 16-18 2 choices either I join myself to the Lord or join myself to the prostitute.
Vs 15-19. List of Qs expecting an yes answer all the Qs focus on the topic of belonging
Vs 20. How is ^ glorified in the human body in 2 ways as a steward & a caretaker, Xtians must exercise mastery over their bodies—individual response; collective response – live lovingly in an edifying manner
Reflection : 1. The body is for the Lord—The human body is meant to be sacred therefore one is supposed to look after your body, all for the purpose of sanctifying the body.
                    2. We have contemporary individualistic emphasis.
Vs 19. P claims your body is not your own, we are dependent on one another 
CAUTION When P says you are not your own  that does not mean you have no responsibility, you are responsible for your actions
                                                                                                                  20th Jan 2008
1 Cor 7: 1-7, Paul response to the Qs about relationship in social & sexual groups.
1. Vs 1-7. Husbands & wives à norms are given à concessions & permissions are given And they are exhorted to avoid immorality.
2. Paul is impartial to men & women, he asks them to avoid immorality, He is equal to both.
3. Vs 3-4. In Xtian marriages for Paul H&W have equal standing & equal authority over the bodies of each other.
4. Vs 5-6. Concessions are given by reason of mutual consent, not unilateral, decision is not one sided, Husbands are not the sole decision makers.
5. Vs 7. Paul is aware of his celibacy, ie abstaining from sexual relationship (for religious reasons for Paul) each of us have a different gift. Therefore concessions are given.
Reflection: Equal status for Men & women in marriage.
7:8-9. Widowers & Widows.
Vs 8. agamois = unmarried = widowers.
Biblical Gk à Koine à Greeco Roman world. Greek was spoken for commerce.
Limitation of Biblical Greek.
7:25-38. Advice of Paul for Widows & Widowers. Paul is advising celibate life, if you cannot exercise self control, remarry à acceptable behavior
1 Cor 7:10-11. Married belivers & divorce.
à Paul believes that his teaching is the teaching of Jesus
Mk 10:2-5; Mt 5:31-32; 19:9; Lk 16:18.
General law à No divorce concessions, separation possible, in the context of Deu 24:1-4 in Jewish practices man could divorce his wife for any reason, bur a women cannot. In Roman law both man & women could divorce each other
Vs 10-11. Reconciliation is mentioned but no divorce,
Vs 11. 2 Divine options. à 1. Remain unmarried 7:26 – 31 End times the day of the Lord
2. Be reconciled , Reconciliation is with God & with one another 2 Cor 5:14-21.
7:12 – 16. Marriage between believers & unbelievers.
Disparity of cult practices. 3 teachings.
  1. Do not divorce the unbelieving spouse, provided the spouse is willing to remain with the believer. Avoid divorce.
  2. The unbeliever is made holy, because of this relationship Vs 14.
  3. God has called us to peace Mt 5:9; Ep 4:1-6
Peace = reconciliation à a. believer & unbeliever à b. unwilling partners want to leave, then the believer should allow the spouse to depart.
Reflection: The disparity of the cult should not cause discord & animosity.
Vs 12. Pauline teaching between relationships
7:17-24. Jew Greeks slaves or freepersons.
Vs 17-19. Circumcision Gen 17: 9-14. à Mark of an Israelite. If you are a Jew you are circumcised, uncircumcised refers to a Gentile
Election / Call à believe in the Gs
7:20 – 23. Slave or freeman either way you belong to God
Vs 24. Caution. This is not a call for inaction / embrace a status Quo.
Reflection: No one should remain in an abusive relationship, take a proactive stance.
7:25-35. Advice / council to the unmarried.
Parthenos = unmarried = refers to a young women / virgin, someone who is betrothed.
Vs 27a-27b. Do not seek a wife.
Vs 28. Speak of distress, Judgment day is going to come. Eschatological times (2nd coming of Christ = the parousia) Rom 8:35; I Thess 3:37.
à Live in the world but in a detached manner, be free from anxieties, be with God focus in the Lord.
Vs 34. Against those who are concerned with the ways of the Lord
Reflection: Believers are not going to be shielded, protected from the concerns of the world, being a xtian is not going to be easy.
7: 36-38. Focus is on those who are unmarried & engaged.
Behave honorably, not a time for experiment
Vs 36. Be married. Better if there is no marriage be devoted to the Lord
7: 39-40. Divorce widowhood & remarriage but only in the Lord.
What is better if she remains the way she is.
1 Cor 8 : 1. Food offered to idols.
Vs 4-6. Idols do not exist.
Vs 9. Free to eat sacrifice
10:19. Meat.
8:7-13 +10:28. Therefore stop eating meat offered to idols
Vs 7. They may think that the meat may be contaminated.
Vs 8. Food has no moral or Religious reverence.
Vs 9. Those who eat such food, should not be a stumbling block for the week members of the cpmmunity.
Vs 11. Stop eating food offered to God
  1. As abandoning ones right.             à
  2. By giving up ones freedom.             à Proof of authentic Love.
  3. Adapting to a situation.                 à
Reflection. Idol worship may take many forms, attachment to my work can be my Idol, hero worship. Find out to whom do you belong.------------à Prasad.
1 Cor 9. The right of an apostle.
1. Paul does not want remuneration for his apostle.
2. But Vs 4-14. To accept living is an apostles right
Vs 15-18. But to renounce this right is his boast reward.
3        apostolic right & food & drink, & material support for his wife who accompanied him,
     no need to work for a living.
  1. Vs 7. The 3 Examples from daily life.
  1. Service à military =soldiers      à
  2. Planting a vineyard = farmers.     à Laborers who deserve wages.
  3. Tending his flock = shepherd.    à
  1. Paul equates himself with other apostles.
à He posses Knowledge & gifts = Charism.
àHe has encountered the Risen Lord.
à He is the founder of the Corinthian church.
  1. Vs 8-10 à Deut 25:4.-à The ox ^ the laborer both need to be fed.
  2. Paul willingly gives up his claim to be deserving remuneration, a just claim Paul renounces.
Reflection: All those who are involved in apostolic work, all have to be supported, materially & spiritually.
1 Cor 9:19-27.Pauls exemplary adaptability.
As an athlete who takes care not to be disqualified.
Vs 19-23.Speak of specific situation where we need to make necessary changes, though he was free he made himself a slave in order to win more people to the faith.
There were 4 Groups.
  1. Jews
  2. Those under the Jewish Law.
  3. Those outside the Law.
  4. The weak, the Gentiles.
Vs 24-27.Paul uses the language exhorting the goodness, Xtian life is good, the final situation is not easy, body needs disciplining.
Boxing & running à Esterian games à Parnathaian .
Imperishable wreath. Pine leaves, buried.
Reflection: In our apostolic work, there is always a need for adaptability.
1 Cor 11:2-16. Proper compartment of women in worship.
1. 11:5, 13. Women praying Paul accepts this.
14:3, 24-25. Paul speaks about women prophesizing.
2. Pauls concern is that some of the women have unveiled heads during worship 11:16. Paul wants them to restore this & cover their heads. So that women can be distinguished from men.
1. 11:3-5. Theological claims   à GOD FIRST, THEN XT, THEN HUMANS.
2.Cultural claims : It is shameful for a women to shave her head 11:5; 11:6.
It is not honorable for a man to have long hair.
11:14-15. For a women it’s a mantel OF GLORY, good for her.
Nature teaches us that men should have short hair, & women long.
Teaching to contextualize à You were willing & available, so you did not cover your hair.
Scriptural claims : Gen 1:11 à 11:7
Gen 2:22 à 11:12a
Gen 6:1-4 à 11:10.
Paul teaches that women should be subordinate to men. Gen 2:21-23;
1 Cor 7. this should be counter balanced by 1 Cor 7:3-4.
When Paul has reconstituted the relationship of H&W which has to be reciprocal,
based on equality.
Reflection. This text must be counter balanced by 1 Cor 7:3-4. à Eph 5:21 mutually submissive.
2. Married believers are called today as copartners who from time to time will be leaders or heads at other times to follow, vice-a-versa, role reversal
3. Both spouses have different functions.
4. Public appearance in worship
1 Cor 15: Kerygmatic (Statement concerning the creed / creedal status)/ Confession of expressing faith in the D&R of Jesus.
1. There are concise standard statements concerning belief in the resurrection from the earliest Xtian community.
2. These statements are used for preaching & confessing the faith.
3. Ex Rom 4:25; 10:9; 1 Thess 4:14; 1 Cor 15:3-4; Acts 2:23
4.These statements have a formula expressing continuity between
Jesus of Nazareth (Historical Jesus) & the Risen Christ (Xt of faith)
Rudolph Buthmann: We will never have the evidence of Xt. We know of the early Xtian community & the writings 1 Cor 15:2-4. Creedal statement, there is no difference between the 2 Jesus of Nazareth & The resurrected Xt.
1 Cor 15:1-11 is a double membered formula, it speaks of the D&R
1 Thess 1:10 is a single membered formula it speaks of only the resurrection.
Xt is the subject of the proclamation
This is a fixed formula
Paralambano = to receive / accept a tradition
Vs 1-2.
15     à 3b-5. Confessional / creedal statement about the D&R of Jesus
à 8 lists of appearances à Peter 12 * 500
    James / apostles / Paul
Original creed à Petewr 12 à 33 AD.
Not original creed <500 inserted in to the writing
                            James & apostles could be original to prove apostleship.
Not original Paul, the purpose is to show the universalisation of the church
The risen lord is not only for Peter & the 12 but for all.
When was this 1 Cor 15 written around 55 – 56 AD.
1 Cor 15:3-5, 7. à 4 coordinate expressions
à died à aorist (past tense)
à Buried à aorist (past tense)
à Raised à Perfect
à Appeared à aorist.
Aorist action is action that is taken in the past & this is also in the present.
Died, Buried, Appeared is an Aorist past term, implied that the action is complete once & for all, but RAISED is used in the perfect tense, implied that the past action whose effect continue in the present. Focus of attention is on the resurrection. It is an event that is meta historical / trans historical (beyond space & time)
Conclusion about the Resurrection.
1.     The appearance of Jesus is the appearance of the risen lord.
2.     They are objective appearances, not subjective visions.
3.     Though objective, they are not necessarily physical in the case of Theophany (manifestation of God) in the OT in which there is no visible element but there is a audition followed by an imparting of message Gen 12:7; 26:2
2 Cor Paul teaches
1. The purpose of God à how you have behaved in your life.
    God is in complete control (we have seen this in Xt) & his plan is nearly complete.
Ch 2:14-16 Paul uses5:10 believes that they have behaved 5:19 Gods purpose in Xt is the reconciliation of the full / entire cosmos.
2. The life of faith as a process, growth is a life of growth Tran functional process is being transformed.
Ch 3:15. Speaks of all xtians, they are works in process & God is working in them to transform them from one degree of glory to another. The new creation when by Gods grace a person dies with Xt & in dieing has brought in newness of love. At the beginning of faith believers are called babies 1 Cor 3:1-2. but as they progress in faith Paul thinks of these as adults and more mature. 1 Cor 2:6; 14:20. Pauls anthropological assumption in 2 Cor that believers are being transformed. 2 Cor 3:18 this is in sharp contrast / opposition with those who are persisting 2 Cor 15:16 ‘ as those who are being saved’ à those who are going from life to light. à baptism to resurrection.
5:1-2. 3 terms for house, referring to human life. Believers have died with xt but just as God raised Jesus from the dead so also we will be raised from the dead Ch 4:14. Therefore change, growth, transformation is highlighted cith regards to the faith. Xtians must have in 2 Cor.
3        Proper believers must care for one another.
Paul presents himself as one who is ready & willing to spend himself in order to secure others in faith 12:15. He urges believers to be compassionate & restoration of fellowship.
Ch 2: 7-8. To those who are being dismissed the community must look after the weak members.
Principal here is that the punishment here is medicinal / curative. Punishment must be just.
There are 2 things that Paul is emphasizing.
  1. Believers must model themselves in the best they see in other believers Ch 9:2; 8:1-17.
  2. 2. Ch 8:12-14 from all that you have from your bounty, provide the need of one another members of the community. Paul is promoting fundamental equality among xtians believers.
  3. The importance of works 2 Cor 1:12; 17;  12:14-18; 12:6; 2:17; 4:2; 11:7-9.
While there is much debate of faith & good works, importance is given to the conduct of believers. Paul is paying attention to the believers & their conduct
2 Cor 3:18.; 4:17-18; 5:4-5; 6;1-2.
Judgment day is to come about, & you will be judged by your behavior, conduct & works.
  1. Reconciliation: Restoring of amicable relationship in a friendly manner.
  1. It is cosmic à God is the creation of the cosmos.
  2. It is communal à Reconciliation among believers.
  3. It is personal à 5:11-21 Every person is called to reconstruct himself in Xt by becoming the member of Xt body . ie the CHURCH.
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