Fr. Lester 9th Sep 07.
Why did John write the book. à Jn 20:30-31. à to deepen our faith.
A 1 Difference & Similarities:
1.1 Differences are geographical chronological & mixture of both.
1. John ministry seems to take place There is an alternation between Galilee
in Galilee, there is almost no & Judea & there is difference in the
ministry in Samaria ministry in Samaria
à Samaritan women at the well
2. Ministry is first in Galilee & Jesus Jesus seems to go at least 3 times to
moves towards Jerusalem Jerusalem, spread over 3 years.
Baptism followed by his Galilee 1st passion, cleansing, death.
Ministry journey. P D & R
3. Cleansing of the temple in the end Here it takes place in Ch 2.
1.1.2. Characteristics of Jesus style.
1. Parable & pronouncement stories Typically long discourses.
Mk 2:23-28 Ch 4; Ch 6 Bread of life
Not that there are no parables / Discourses Ch 10
The hearer can enter in to the mystery of Jesus
The mystery is the contemplation of the who of
Jesus à Life.
1.1.3. Content of Jesus teaching, It is mentioned only in one context Ch 3:3-5
the central notion of the KOG The central content is the person of Jesus
The focus of Jesus teaching is not the KOG
But his own
Ch 2 /3 / 4. Identity & the closeness to the father
Major theme Life; Light; Truth.
1.1.4.Difference in Jesus action There is a deliberate choice 7 (miracles) signs
(draw you to the ide4ntity of Jesus)
There is not a single ex. Of exorcism.
The healing of the man born blind brings out
what Jesus does in the life of a Xtian. Leading us
from the word of darkness to the true light.
Along the 7 miracles
- Ch 2 Cana
- Ch 4 Officials son
- Ch 5 Pool bedsiders.
- Ch 6 Multiplication & walking on water
- Ch 9 Man born blind
- Ch 11 The raising of Lazarus
- From the 7 . 2, 9, 11 are original to John.
1.2.1 Narrative Outline. --------------------------à Here 2 by 2.
Encounter with JdB, calling of the disciples, public ministry of Galilee, growing opposition. Arrest trial & death. Discovery of the empty tomb. Resurrection.
1.2.2. Cultural & religious background à There are 3 schools of thought.
a) Hellenistic b) Gnostic c) Contemporary.
Greek influence long discourses Judean.
Dualism – light- darkness Nicodemous came by night In this part scholars thought
Earthly à Ch 3 Heavenly & Jesus goes on & on there was no influence of Judas
Ch 2-10 is patterned on Judaism
His familiarity with the Geography
Of Palestine ( Bethany Lazarus) Ch 18 the Kidron valley
Ch 10 Solomon Porch. Ch 5:2 the pool of bedsider, Ch 9 pool of Sidon.
These sites are not mentioned in the other GSp some time eternal. Supports accuracy.
He is a contemporary Judean, He is familiar with the feasts, traditions & customs
3. Process of composition.
3.1. From the GSp data we discover it is not a unified composition (not written by only one person)
3.1.1. Why do we say that there are differences in writing style in Ch 21
We say that Ch 20 & 22 are not written by the same person. The prologue is not like the rest prologue is written in a hynic poetic style.
There are 3 concepts found only in the Prologue.
Logos à Word.
Charis à Grace.
Plerome à fullness
3.1.2. Breaks in consistence.
The book of signs appears to have 2 conclusions Ch 10:40 ff & Ch 12:37 ff
In the farewell discourse Ch 14:31 there appears to be a command to go
At the end of the GSp Ch 20 / Ch 21 there are multiple contributors.
3.1.3. Repetition & context. Ch 5:17-25; Ch 5:26-30
Context is healing / closeness to the father. Ref à Ch 14 & 16 Pg 4 Fathers notes.
3.2.1. Raymond & Brown 5 stage process.
a. ORAL Jesus teachings à either words (Q Source), words (Mk)
These are similarities but not identical to synoptics.
b. 3.2.2. Oral transmission à Reflection Johanic
c. 3.2.3. Written transmission àSequential work (evangelist came in)
d. 3.2.4. Written Editing.
e. 3.2.5. Final Redaction à Biblical criticism.
4.1 John the beloved disciple
Irenius & Lyons had proposed that it was John the son of Zebddie.
Modern scholars speak who the author is
a. Jesus who spoke the word.
b. Beloved disciple who remembered the word
c. This disciple & many other disciples (Johannine school)
d. One member who happened to be an evangelist.
e. Final member who is the redactor.
5. The destination & purpose of the Gospel.
5.1.Date as late as 200 /190 AD.
P52 (papyrus 52) carbon dating 130 AD. Which means that John was already written. Keeping in mind the time to travel. It took 10 -20 yrs to reach Egypt. Date 90-100-110AD
5.2. The community was Jewish & Hellenistic
Hosher attitude towards the Jews; He refers to them as (Hoi Juddai) à all Jews.
Driven out of the Synagogues à Jamnia Council.
5.3.1 The Purpose: à Deepen the faith Ch 20.
Because Ch 13-17. Jesus is speaking to his disciples who had already accepted him 8:31
He is speaking to the Jews who believed in him.
5.3.2. They are written that you might ‘come to believe’ or ‘believe’
Missionary à Samaritan women Ch 4.
5.3.3. Apologetic. Against the JBp text, to prove that J is great, he is greater then me.
6. (*) General Literary Characteristics.
All Gs writers have few techniques. Mk à turns round à Jesus
Miracles à Exorcism -----------------à John is a lot more technical.
6.1. Misunderstanding à Jesus want to make a point
Man asks a Qs à Man does not understand + Jesus goes on talking
Ch 3:3. ‘Very truly I tell you no one can see the KOG without being born from above.
Ch 4:10 ‘Give me a drink, you would have asked him, & he would have given you Living waters’… Ch 6:28. ‘What must we do to perform the works of God’
The people take the verbal & material meaning not the Spiritual meaning.
6.2.Irony: A person says something but the Johannine meaning is surprising other then what the speaker intends, but in fact is true. Ex. It is better for one man to die for the whole nation to be saved.
3:2. ‘ rabbi we know that you are a teacher who has come from God; for no one can do these signs, that you do apart from the presence of God ‘
6:42. The Jews stated complaining ‘Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father & mother we know. à Vs51. ‘I am the living bread that came down from heaven’
9:40. ‘Surely we are not blind are we’
Some thing similar à Jesus of Nazareth he king of the Jews
Ch 2: Cleansing of the temple à destroy the temple à Jesus’ own body.
6.4. Inclusion. Gs of Mk à sandwich technique. Jairus doughter à women à Jairus daughter.
These help to combine passages.
à Ch 1:1 In the beginning. à 1:2-17 à 1:18 No one has ever seen God
à Ch 2:1 On the 3rd day à Cana the 1st sign.
2:11 on the 3rd day à Cana the 1st sign.
à Ch 4:46 Second sign.
à Ch 9:1 Blind 9:41 Sight
à Ch 6:35 Ch 6:40
6.5 Realised Eschatology. (already but not yet) à End times.
Ch 1:10-12. His own received him not.
Blind man now sees, lame man now walks. Ch 3:18, Ch5:24, Ch 8:12.
6.6. Discourses. Dialogues becoming monologues.
Nicodemus, Samaritan women dialogues à monologues
KOG à John à Person of Jesus.
End of the discourse Ch 2. Partial belief à full belief Samaritan women Ch 4, blind man Ch 9
6.7. Duplicate Speech. Ch 14; Ch 16.
Bread of life Ch 6 -------------------Vs 35-37
Moses Manna Torah ------ sacramental undertone.
6.8. Rearrangement compared with Synoptic Order
7. Out Line Plan Pg 1 notes:
GN of JXt à Mk à JBp
à Lk à Adam
à Mt. à David /Abraham
à Jn à Pre existence.
Any thing in the GSp John will have some reference in the prologue.
1.1 Literary analysis
1.1.1. Variation in style (hymnic) & Content.
Hymns inserted in prose.
1-5 poetry 6-9 prose JBp
10-12 poetry 13 prose
14-16 poetry 17-18 prose.
The evangelist adopts an earlier hymn separating the preexistence of the logos & its activity in creation.
1.2. Present Structure of the Prologue pg 1.--------------------------à 1-5 Ref notes pg 1.
1.3. Social Background. à In Hellenistic philosophy
à We find the Gnostic concept of God. Logos = God
1:1-5. Logos with God -à Gk.
Vs1. In the beginning “ En Arche” Gen 1:1 Heb à bereshit
God is the ultimate & the absolute origin of all things.
By ‘In the beginning’ John shows à signals a new creation & a new being in God creative & saving activity. It is qualitative not = quantitative beginning.
In the beginning “was” (Gk hen” à ‘was’ indicates pre existence.
The background of the word (logos) has to be seen in conjunction of the OT creation.
The creative word begins in to being all things Ps 33:6-9. Ps.147:15-18
Vs 2. Was with God à Pro theon à a relationship with the ultimate / communion / intimate.
Vs 3. The 2nd element of the meaning that Gods wisdom is at work in him
Proverb 8:23 – 36; Sirac 24:1-22.
Vs 4-5. 2 important word which will be developed in to themes à Life & Light.
Life = Gk Zoe. In the other 3 synoptic ‘Life’ comes 16 times.
In John alone it comes 36 times
In Rev. it comes 17 times
In Letters it comes 13 times
Life that John is speaking is of eternal life / fullness of life…ie Life in conjunction with God
For John to live with Xt means living with God, Sharing his life,
as the son shares with his father 5:26; 6:27
The son speaks & gives life 1 Jn 1:1-2.
The purpose of the incarnation is the same as creation only on a higher level.
Light à Phos Gk
In Gen the 1st word of creation is ‘ Let there be light’ à which separates from darkness.
Wisdom 7:26. Primordial light.. Ps 119:105 Light that guards the path of the believer.
Vs 5. Johannine dualism; light & darkness, this was tainted by sin.
Any person comes close to Jesus comes close to light.
Nicodemus came to Jesus by night.
Judas went in to the night.
Adam & eve both succumbed to the darkness, with the sin of Adam & eve there is darkness
While darkness may seem to overcome but it NEVER overcome light.
God will never allow evil to destroy humanity.
Gods power & light will always over come darkness.
In Vs 5 the emphases is on the logos which is close to God & sharing in Gods creative life giving & light giving work.
Ch 1:6-13. Logos in Relationship to the World.
Vs 6-9. Deliberate redaction by the evangelist to link the Logos hymn to the ministry of JBp & the public ministry of Jesus. Here we have a major theme of JBp ‘WITNESS’ John is not to be confused with the Messiah à Logos is coming to the world.
Vs 10-13. This is the saddest (Vs.11) & the Gladdest (Vs. 12) verse in the Bible
Vs 11 à “He came to what was his own, & his own people did not accept him’
Vs 12 à But to all he received him, who believed in his name, he gave power to became children of God.
These Verses speak of the rejection & acceptance of Jesus
The acceptance of belief leads to life which leads us to be children of God.
Ch 1: 14-18. The Word became Flesh.
Logos Egneto Sarx for the Gk Sarx was something that was evil
Historically (it places Jesus in human history) of the incarnation.
Now the Logos is rooted in human history & active in the work of salvation.
Sarx the Gnostic would not have said that the Logos became flesh because it was dirty & week, this is Johns affirmation of the incarnation.
Vs 14 ‘dwelt’ (goes back to Exodus & pitched his tent among us)
The word in Gk Skene Ex 25:4.
Ezi Ch 3 & Isah Ch 6 à God is there with his people.
From the time of the Incarnation God presence and Glory is to be sought more in the presence of Jesus there in the Temple.
Other words for “Dwelt” = Remain, Abide ---------à menien.
Glory: God’s presence and Glory is closely found in OT.
Isah Ch 6 glory of God fills the Temple.
Ezi Ch 43 We have seen his Glory – not everyone will perceive the Glory of God only a witness / Believer will see the Glory of God 1 Jh 1:1
Full of Grace and Truth Grace = Hb Hesed i.e. Tender and Steadfast
Truth = Emet Greek Fidelity
In the prolog we find God’s faithfulness and Truth in all its fullness.
Vs 16. From this fullness we receive Grace upon Grace as stressed in Vs 16. i.e. Super abundance of Grace , Believers will receive through Jesus “ Jh 10:10” The OT is Superseded
Vs 17-18. Refer to Moses. Moses v/s JXt
Law v/s Grace
Vs 1. With its symbolic overtone of its OT themes and words
Vs 18. The prolog introduces Jh GSp from a perspective that in and through the life D/R of Jesus, God has brought about a new Creation and a Covenant relationship that Supersedes the Mosaic one. 16-Sep
Word = Hb “Dabar”
Isah Ch 10 :55 Effective Life giving ; Word of God ; Spoken. Creative word Ch 3, 6, 9.
Exo Ch 20:1 Decalogue
Prophets , they hear and Speak what the Lord spoke Isah 1:2 , Jer 1:2 , WOG
NT influences because of the Greek culture and development Word à Logos.
Mk Ch 2:2 Word à Logos
Acts 4:31 WOG
Jh 1:1 Logos
Time Gal 4:4 Kairos Greek; Chronos
Dabar is not = Logos
God - Wisdom (Jesus) – Creative World
A. The significance of Logos in Jh is in line with the Creative WOG Personified in Wisdom in the OT
B. We already see Nuances of sayings and Revealing.
C. The Evangelist so beautifully Integrate (and Skillfully) the themes of the early Christological Hymns to the early GSp
Ch 2:17. The Law came through Moses.
D. The Incarnate Word of Jesus is life and Light of the World.
E. He was an instrument of Creation.
F. The prolog begins and ends with the Closeness to the Father
Vs 1-18. * à Inclusion
SIGNS 1:19 -------- 12:50
C Part 1.
* A final summary of the book of Jh.
1. Seven Days of gradual Revelation.
1.1. This corresponds to the Seven day theme of Gen or The first week of new Creation.
Jesus ministry starts after the preaching of JBp. Who was a prophetic witness to Jesus.
Human beings have a role to play. Come and see and believe
Day 2 and 4 is the Gradual unfolding of the Light.
1.2. Testimony of JBp Isah 40:3
Theological Significance à JBp is the Fore runner , Who will be preparing the way
The Apologetical Significance à JBp sect
1.3. JBp witnesses Look see Behold 29-30
a. The Apocalyptic Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the World. LOG = Amnos Gk
He is the Concurring / Victorious Lamb of God over Sin, Evil, and Temptation Rev 5:6
b. Suffering Lamb of God. Lamb going Humbly to the Slaughter Isah 2:53
c. Pascal Lamb 1 Peter Ch 1.
1:33-34 There was no account of JBp Similar to the Baptism of Jesus.
1.4. Day 3,3 35-51 Jesus Welcomes 2 disciples to come and see.
In Jh’s GSp the wd “Seek” Expresses the quest of following Jesus
This must proceed “seeing”
It is only when I Seek I can See Ch 3:21 Ch 5:28 Ch 6:35
1.5. Discipleship. Witnessing growth in faith, experience of communion with God
1.5.1. Discipleship & witnessing, come seek & follow. All these are linked with discipleship.
They are marks of a disciple 39 staying à menien.
Philip also uses come & see
True disciple involves deeper search Vs 38.
The word following or accompanying means being with him at all times.
1.5.2.What is the result of saying ‘growth in faith’
Rabbai / teacher they stay with him. We have found a Messiah Vs 41.
The Wd ‘come’ 3 times emphasizes the wd staying.
1.5.3. Vs 42 Cephas . Jesus looks at Peter & does not see what the disciple is at the beginning of the call but the role he will play in the later community formed & guided by disciples . The Johannine Jesus is all knowing Jesus.
1.5.4. Nathanial Custom those who study the law. Fig tree is the symbol of the tree of Knowledge.
Fact of sitting & standing; seeing & seeking
Study law to sit under the fig tree. Tree of knowledge
Nothing of Nathanial is seeking,
Fact that is study & sitting under the fig tree. Show he is seeking.
Nathanial represents all Israel who were free seekers for awaiting for the fulfillment of Gods promise. Nathanial = Gift of God.
Can ant thing good come out of Nazareth. ? Q asked by the skeptic
Nathanial represents both the Searching Israel & the skeptic Israel.
Large part of Israel, Jesus’ origin was a stumbling block. Jesus sees Nathanial differently. Jesus sees what Nathanial would be Vs 47. Here is a truly an Israelite.
Progress, seeking, seeing
Vs 51 ‘you’ Greek plural
Mt 16:27 -son of man similar but independent
- comes down of the synoptic
- angels tradition.
End result seeking, staying
Jacob stands & represents Israel, He represents God coming down to him.
This is a reaffirmation that God as coming down to dwell with his people in a fuller way.
Ch 2. 0. Setting. On the 3rd day, Cana, 8 miles from Galilee, marriage is a relationship with Yahweh, to show Yahweh’s relationship with Israel
A sign of the eschatological age Is 54:62; Hosea 2:116; Gen 3:20.
Wine = is a symbol of Joy & Messianic fulfillment.
Abundant wine à Amos 9:13 Good times ahead Is 25:6.
So much Super abundance à Wine will flow over them.
First sign the revelation of the Eschatological age
Vs 11 Opening of the food Gates.
2. Replacement of the OT institutions 2:1 - 4:54.
2.1.Replacements of the Jewish purification rites.
Wash their hands before food---------Jewish, water.
They have no wine à This was a Messianic fulfillment, it is a stark comment on the bankruptcy of Jewish tradition.
Lack of purification Jars, situation in Galilee, the very purification Jars he filled with himself. He is showing that Jesus & not the purification rites of the OT promises, reflected, quality, & quantity it is going to supersede, replace, cancel the earlier
Sign: An extraordinary prodigion deed with strong symbolic possibility that illustrates Jesus salvafic action. Jesus is sent by God
‘hour’ The hour of Jesus passion
Jesus emphasizes the father’s role. From where did Jesus come. Jesus came from the father.
(The person of Jesus is emphasized in the GSp of John & not the KOG like the other GSp.)
2.2. Replacement of the Temple.
In the synoptic Jesus is immediately challenged. It is that incident that provoked the killing. That incident preceded the triumphant entry of Jesus in to Jerusalem.
Q* In the synoptic it is the cleansing of the temple. In the GSp of St John it is the raising of Lazarus that provoked the killing.
In the synoptic it is the action of protest, cleansing the temple. Here it is the replacement of the temple by the very person of Jesus ------------------------------------------à Pg 4 chart.
Q* 2.2.1. Different kind of people encountered Jesus, People with true faith 2:11 Believers
People with imperfect faith 2:23-25 Ch 3:6.
People who had no faith, unbelievers not = seekers, scribes, & Pharisees.
2.3 Replacement of Birth into a chosen people à Ch 3.
Jews the chosen people.
Vs 1-2a. Setting à The inter play of night (darkness) & light into a prologue
Peter, Judged learned, Sanhedrin, perfect in Law. He came to Jesus by night
(they are in the night.)
Nathanial is away from the light.
Evening, discussion of the Law took place in the night, though he could be called a seeker , his faith imperfect. Starts by Rabbi, ends with Rabbi.
Deeper significance is that Nathaniel like others is still in the night, he is not yet ready / prepared to receive Gods message
The term KOG is used in conjunction with eternal life
For the rich young man wealth is a block
For Nathaniel knowledge was a block
Jesus alone can help you to enter the KOG, Eternal life, closeness to the father. Who makes it possible to all who believe 1:14-18
There are 3 Qs.
2.3.2. How can one see the KOG
à I am being born (will of man)
born à Gk Genan
à From God – Action of God 9of God)
Q2. The how of begetting the Water & Spirit
à From above ( 0f God) water / spirit
à again a new (Nicodemus misunderstanding) from flesh
Ez 36:26. Clean Water, renewed Spirit. Dead community/ put a new Heart.
Action of God brings about a renewal Ch 32:15, Jowel Ch 2
Entrance in to KOG requires Eschatological out pouring of the spirit. It is some thing that man cannot accomplish on his own.
Q3. Are you the teacher.
Ch 3:12 Heavenly things are superior greater, the challenge thrownto Nathanial is to grow in faith
Vs 11. ‘we’ now become a dialogue between the xtian & the Jewish community.
Vs 14. OT . saving act of God, Jesus now becomes the fulfillment of the OT. Salvafic act of God
Lifting up of Jesus, it is the first of the 3rd times Jesus lifts up 3:14; 8:28; 12:32-34.
The 3 lifting up corresponds to the PDR prediction
In Mk 8:31; 9:31; 10:33. growing in intensity.
In Johns GSP the xtian faith is the high point of Jesus glory it is only after the lifting up of Jesus rebirth will take place thro a process of D/R.
Ch 14 & 16 Vs 16,21-22; vs 31-36. Duplicate speech:
In both the speeches, belief in Jesus is necessary for the ‘gift’ or being ‘born again’ ‘from above’ some choose to remain in darkness. Vs 16 for God
Prologue; A person deed would reflect the authority of ones choice. reflects are sin, holiness & brotherly love.
Final witness of JBp à image of the bridegroom. à Vs 28. Wedding Cana Jesus is the Bridegroom of Israel; JBp is the best man; Israel is the bride
Ch 4: Samaritan women. Growth in faith of the Samaritan women.
Vs 9 How is it that you as a Jew----
Jesus has not only come for the chosen people but for the whole world.
2.4. Ch 4:1-3. Replacement of worship. Transitional verse.
Vs 1-3. transitional verse. Setting.
Vs 4-6. Jacobs well ? It exists till today. The spring never dries up. Jacob was a revered Patriarch. Thro Jacob many blessings came to Jesus. Are you greater then Jacob.
8:53. Are you greater then Abraham
7:15 ‘spring’ step 1. Vs. 7-10 her level is, earthly level. Jesus takes the initiative.
Reaction à antagonistic.
Step 2. Vs. 11-15 Superior quality that the water Jesus gives at the well gives eternal life, Saving power of the water.
Step 3. Water is the cherished gift, in the Palestinian desert land Jacobs well is a gift of God
Water was the symbol of divine wisdom & teaching Is 55:10
Water is also the symbol of the Torah Ps 1 or 7. Come to the water of the living word of God, Torah. à nourishment.
Vs 12. Ex Irony
Many husbands à mixed ancestry of the Samaritan.
6 + 1. Jesus is the 7th bridegroom à perfect #.
Is Jesus confronting all Samaritans, or he is confronting only her. Because of their idolatry ways.
Vs 20 – 26. Nor does he reveal what true worship is but reveal his true identity. I am he.
(leaves) water Jar à She does not have to cling to the Jar. Mission à witness.
Proverbs 35, 37. Sowing & reaping ( gap in between ) God is the sower, Jesus is a reaper, by extension, Jesus becomes the sower the apostles & the women become the reapers.
Vs. 37. Theology of the mission.
Just as the father send Jesus on the mission, Jesus reaps what the father has sown. Reap what Jesus has sown.
4:39-42. come , see, stay, & believe.
Vs 46-54. Two themes dominate this.
Vs 48. A challenge from Jesus to move from the sign. 2ndly that a healing that takes place at a distance
Vs 53. The fulfillment of belief
Vs 43. After 2 days.
Vs 50-53. Triple emphasis on life. This theme of life, the theme pronounced in the prologue ‘seen’ from Ch 3 – 15 à following culminates in Ch 11. Where he will raise. A dead man to life.
3. Replacement of the OT feasts 5:1 -10:42.
1. Jewish feasts have an organizing principal.
2. Encounter with group, earlier it was individuals.
3. Earlier there was disbelief, now there is hostility.
4. Jesus replaces Jewish feasts.
3.1. Sabbath Vs 10-16.
3.2. Passover Ch 6.
3.3. (7:1 – 10:21) 7:2 Tabernacle.
3.4. Dedication Vs 22.
3.1. Sabbath. Vs 10-16.
Histocity à Bethzatha. House of flowing water. à Qumran copper plates.
à had a spring that would come at certain times. For John à a person who is a paralytic does not live life in all its fullness,
this man suffers from hopelessness Vs 5-6. for 38 yrs. Do you want to be made well.
The action of Jesus is the action of bringing new life to all believers.
Vs 17. My father --------à I am also work. Play on wordsà work & works. I am = God
Jesus ceases the Sabbath motif & develops his doctrine of the giver of life.
If my father is worker & on the Sabbath, I am working.
I am disobedient, I am doing exactly what my father wants me to do.
Vs 21-24.Eschatology,The blessing of the lord, are already been experiencing here and now.
Vs 25: Already but not yet
Vs 31-40. Trial / Court room drama. -------------à blasphemy.
According to the trial custom, 2 witness were sufficient.
1. Vs 33 – 35. à 1st Wwitness à JBp
2. Vs 36 à Father.
3. à works
4. Vs 39 à Scripture.
5. Vs 45. à Moses (author of the Torah)
3.2. Passover Ch 6.
Ch 4. Jesus is the giver of the living water à Torah
Ch 5. The paralytic is healed by the life giving water of Jesus.
A discourse on the power of Jesus to give life.
Ch 6. Feeding becomes an occasion for the revelatory discourse on the bread of life. All the 4 GSp record this miracle.
6:1-15. The Miraculous feeding.
The provision of food was the action of man sent by God. Elisha; Elijah (2 Kg) Ch 4:42-44. Barley loaves, which John also picks up. Whole of Ch 6 is the concept of the manna is more clear. John will show that Jesus is the bread of life. John will emphasize that people must follow Jesus not because what he gives you materially but he himself is nourishment.
Vs 3. On a mountain instructs at Mt Sinai, now the law has to be replaced
Role of Philip & Andrew intermediatories to bring people to Jesus. Jesus would nourish the community with Gods words
Vs 14 ---------à Deut 18:18.
6:16 – 21. Walking on the sea . It is I = I am he
Gk = Ego = Eimi Samaritan women.
= I am
In Mt & Mk the emphasis is on the calming of the sea, in John, Jesus identity as God who is also with then.
Vs 17. It is dark, As long as Jesus is not with them. Why are they in darkness. Because Jesus had not yet come to them.
Vs 7. ‘I am’ statement. There are 7 ‘I am’ statements. This ‘I am’ is assuring to the community.
6:35-51. Bread of life discourse.
Symbolic ‘bread’ & its background in the OT is the torah. In this part the wisdom theme dominates. Wis Ch 16:20-23.
In the 8th cen. BC. Amos 8:11-13 Jamine not for food but for the WOG
In the 6th Cent Is 65:11-13 there will be food but the food will not satisfy.
Jesus in John will say à therefore the bread of life that will satisfy.
Thro the formula it is clear that Jesus is the nourishment promised & indicated in the OT. Jesus proclaims his self as one who nourishes the community.
( Vs 36 – 40 should follow Vs 17 – 18.) As catholic to sacrament
Vs 41. Relates to murmuring.
In Rabbnical text the theme of murmuring was often dwelt upon
Vs 41 -50.
Vs 42 Irony, misunderstanding.
Vs 52 – 59. Sacramental overtone. Phagein = chewing.
Vs 60- 71 Rejection by some Jews.
Vs 68 Simon Peter represents the believers. To whom shall we go similar to Peter confessing to faith.
In the GSP John
- Jesus delivers no sermon on the Mountain & plain
- He tells no Parables
- heals no lepers & carries no exorcism
- Does not instruct the disciples, to pray the Lords Prayer, nor gives moral teaching & Religious Instructions.
- He does not institute the Last Supper
- Jesus delivers discourses debates with his opponents & * Then withdraws to be with his disciples whom he commands to love one another.
- It is only here that he is described as the Word – Logos Gk sent from God
- In this GSp the miracles are signs that replace the OT institutions. Feasts are there to signify who Jesus is & to evoke faith.
- He says it is thro him that we can see the KOG. 23rd Sept 07.
Ch 2, 3, 4. Deals with Jesus individualism – purification, Birth in the chosen people, temple worship at Jerusalem.
3.3. (7:1 – 10:21) 7:2 Tabernacle / Booth Sukoth = clean
The feast commorates the community of the temple. Solomon 1 Kings 8:2.
Sept / Oct was autumn. They prayed for the early winter rains. & they have three fold symbols they lived in
1. Booths, made of branches, it reminded the people of the temporary living in the desert.
One tent was reserved for the Ark of The Covenant.
2. Water, The people brought the water from. * These debates do not concern the interpretation of the law & related moral issues * They dwell unlike the Synoptic that end in the KOG, they dwell on messiah ship & divine son ship that Jesus makes for himself.
The pool of Siloam – this symbolism à the gift of rain.
3. Lit torches, torches were lit in the court of women, theme of light & water.
The chapter can be divided in 3 parts.
A. Before the feast Vs 1-13
B. In the middle of the feast of the Tabernacle Vs 14 – 36
C. Last days of the feast Vs 37 – 52.
Ch 6. deals with bread of life.
A. Before the feast ‘work / doing’
a. 6:15 - king à 3rd temptation.
b. 6:30 - sign manna / loaves 1st temptation
c. 7:3 Show me your power à 2nd temptation ( Believers , non believers, Partial believers)
Vs 3 ff own Glory / their interest.
Vs 6 -8. time kairos (time = Gods time of grace) = Gods appointed time of Grace.
Vs 11-13. There are believers & partial believers.
They are accusing of being a false PROPHET, accuse Jesus of leaving his flock. Growing hostility of Jesus.
Vs 13. Fear of the Jewish authorities, they had a strong hold on the people.
B. Middle of the Feast. Vs 14-36.
Jesus begins by teaching in the GSp. Learning (gramnata) = knowledge of God & not Rabbinical school
Vs 19. He accused the lovers of the law & Torah of breaking the law.+ yet you are trying to kill, you love the law,
Vs 20. demons = Mk Ch 3:20 Bezubul.
Vs 22 You circumcise the child on the Sabbath for the health of the child
à I do it for the whole body
Summary: Jesus defends his teaching & healing on the Sabbath against the accusations of being a false teacher. Jesus asserts that he is from God. He doesnot seek his own Glory.
C. Last days of the feast.
This is the climax of Jesus saying on the Water. * 37….Lef…
Jesus is the source of living waters. Jesus clims to be the promised water in the OT. Deu,Is, Ez 36
The community understands that Jesus is the living water
Vs. 37 -39. Believers are called to live to be the sourse.
D. Vs 53. This passage does not contain typical Johoannine vocabulary, this fits very well with Jesus compassion towards the sinner, particularly those found in Lk GSp. Some of the most important & the oldest manuscripts in another location ie LK 21:38 à
Ch 8: Light of the world, appears in the prologue.
Present again in 9:5 . Sight to the blind man, light to the blind man.
Zec 14:7 à It speaks of continuous day.
Exo 13:21 à Pillar of light.
Wis 18:34 à imperishable light of the law & the love
Jesus is the symbol of Gods law.
Jesus claims that he supersedes tha Law his claim is not that it is anti law but beyond the law.
Vs29-31 +38.Believers & non believers, many are delivered in him. Jews who believe in him
Vs 39 John brings Moses Ch 3, Jacob (well) Abraham Ch 8 -----------39.
Before Abraham was ‘ I am ‘
Vs 39. Jesus tells that they are Abrahams children, externally not in action, 2ndly Ch3 physical birth by which one belongs to the chosen race is the guarantee of salvation. Neither it is automatic that people believe in. Abrahams obedience to faith.
Ch 9. Vs 1-5. Blind à seeing
See à blind
Jesus is the light the closer that you go to him more open your eyes would be
Vs 1-5 Setting
Vs 6-7 Brief account of healing
Vs 8-34 Discussion & interrogation
Vs 35-41 Theological conclusion : the entire chapter has to be seen in this light.
Ch 9:1-5. Setting: Discussion centers weathers why a man born blind, own sins. Sins of his parents. This discussion, they believe & discern because this was for your sins or your parents sins.(Jewish belief).
Jesus does not answer on the discussion not why the man was born blind but why he is given back his sight. He shifts the focus in the purpose of the healing not the process.
The symbolism of the blindness which will be developed further will be unbelief which leads to believe coming to believe in Christ.
The first interrogation
Vs 8-12. Reaction of the neighbors
Vs 11 the man
Vs 17 He became a prophet
Vs 33 Man from God
Vs 38 Worshiped him.
Mixing of the clay breaks the Sabbath law
Vs 24. Give glory to God, Give Glory to Jesus.
Vs 31. We now represent all believers 8:31.
The believing community like the blind come to Jesus & are saves. End product is full belief, thrown out of the synagogue Vs22. The masterful description of the conflict compared with Ch 5 (paralytic) who is not an expression as the blind man as a result.
The Theological conclusion comes with Jesus meeting the man again. The final encounter, Jesus invites does not demand belief.
Vs 41 Is 9:2
There are moments of physical blindness à sight Is 6:8-9.
Ch 9 Move towards the light
Ch 10. 1-5 parables combo of 2 ‘I am’ Good shepherd, Door, Gate,
There are 2 images the shepherd & the door keeper, they communicate different things, 2 Parables intervened with each other.
The Parables have only one point, allegory, little details have meaning.
Vs 1-3 Gate, or Gate door, Shepherd OT background #s 27: 16-17. Micah 2:12-13.
Clear imagery the community is responsible as sheep, & divinely appointed shepherd as leader.
Ez 34 Strong indictment (thieves) of the Shepherd, King of Israel & the promise (Shepherd) of an Messianic Shepherd King
The explanation of the gate
Through which the shepherd enters.
Jesus is the narrow Gate, Going thro Jesus you will have your true pastures. I feed you & protect you Jn 10:10. If you came through me You will have abundance.
Vs 11-16.The shepherd is ready to die for the sheep. Sheep in the other fold
Vs 17 -18 Allogarisation à translate in to life refers to the Resurrection.
3.4 Vs 22. Feast of Dedication = Haloca.
It is Geographical & Chronological (Jerusalem) Still in Ch 10
In winter the feast of rededication time of Maeba / Maccabee 4:59
Antiochus put this image in to the temple
Summery of 22-41.
Inclusion Ch 2. Stars with JBp – ends with JBp -- Ch 10.
3.4 Lazarus 11-12.
The predominant theme is life which is mentioned in the prologue 8:12; 10:10
Jesus is the light of the world, & this is the light of life. The life & light ends in Lazarus. The raising to life of Lazarus becomes a powerful sign, a life giving sign of Jesus Lazarus is brought to life by the power of God. The theme of life climaxes in the book in signs but also introduces the book of Glory.
Setting Vs 1-6.
Vs 6. 2nd day, 3rd day Jesus Resurrection.
Friend of Jesus named Lazarus
Synoptic (Lazarus / Richman) Both the Lazarus are different.
Lk 16:19-32 poor man. Jn Lazarus dead friend the similarity. Close to Gods bosom
Vs 4. ‘Glory’ Is an anticipation of his hour, the GSp of John will reach its highest point. The process is not important.
The raising is the culmination of the book of signs, & the beginning of the book of Glory it takes place on the 3rd day. A divinely planned event Vs 6.
Vs 7. ‘ lets go to Judea again’ knowing the opposition is there. Encounter of the light with the darkness
Vs 9. Significance of the meaning of the obstacle in the path of God, He is not afraid to confront the darkness ‘us’ encourages the disciples to confront the darkness.
Vs 10-11. Our friend à pl is in sleep (daughter of Jairus), death is described as a temporary resting & Jesus is going to wake him & raise him to life.
Vs 14. Double meaning à he is dead, as I am not with him he is dead.
The absence of Jesus is becoming an occasion to wake him up
Vs 16. Willingness Thomas (later Xtian) who were willing to go & make the same journey to crucifixion & death.
Light à Blind à see
Life à Dead à Life.
Vs 17-33 Meeting with Martha & Mary.
As Jesus moves towards the dead man Lazarus, he is moving towards his own death & Glory. Martha is shown as a person of deep belief as devoted as Mary.
* Jesus power over life over death
Vs 25 Theological climax. Even before the recounting of the event the significance is is announced that Jesus is the resurrection & the life. He is the one who has power over life & death & restores a person to life. Eternal life
Vs 27 Martha’s proclamation of faith.
There are similarities with Martha but much shorter & less significant.
The good Shepherd indeed cares for his sheep in this sorrowful situation
Vs 37. Similar to the temptation.
Vs 38-44. Tomb of Lazarus
The description of the tomb is very accurate.
Vs 43. Lazarus come out. This is to stress the power of Jesus that calls Lazarus.
Vs 46. Non believer
10:31-33. Many Jews believed in Jesus
The others reported this to the authorities
The 3rd group decided to kill Jesus.
Johns version of the trial Mt 26:1-5.
12:1 Passion Jesus goes to Jerusalem the 3rd time.
Vs 25. Life
Vs 27. Hour
Vs Like the Baptist
Ch 13-17. This is a farewell discourse.
Literary Genre à Speech of the Patriarch.
To those he is leaving behind à children
Jacob to his son Gen 49
Moses Deu 33
Testament of the 12 Patriarchs
What is part of the discourse is reassurance & consolation, there is also instruction & exhortation.
It is not only the material inheritance what the person stood for
Ref notes 23/9/07.
Ch 13 * Jn 1:1 Phil 2:5 Jn 1:18 *
* Emptied Xt Lord God the father *
* slave Jesus *
* human form above all names*
· obedient un to death
Vs 27 Jesus gives permission , Jesus is in charge, Jesus is in control with his life.
Vs 18 Jesus is the way.
Ch 15. This vine – Israel (OT) Ez 17
In the OT God choice vine
Jesus says I am the true vine (replacement theory)
Ch 17 1-8 Pray for himself
9-18 disciples 19 à