Fr Errol Fernandes
2nd. March 2008
Ist. Letter of Peter seems to have been written between 70- 80 AD, it was not necessarily written by Peter, it could be his idea that was used, it was not necessary Peter the Apostle. Peter is speaking to the converts. From being an unbeliever to now being a believer. That is to some one who has faith in JC. Faith & Salvation are the important themes of thi epistle. The main purpose is to convey hope in the midst of persecution ( state sponsored) not acceptable because of the change of life, contrast community, live in the world.
1: 1-2. Greeting.
Greeting Gk Chariein, Grace Charis . Charis here is a free gift of God.
In the Opening Vs Baptism is mentioned---Obedient
---God / Sp of JC mt 28:19-20.
It was written to the exiles NOT the physical exile because of their Sp exile & they were a contrast community.
Grace = charis; eirene=peace= Hb shalom= wholeness.
Peace not = absence of strife.
1:3-5 Reborn to hope.
Resurrection- New hope- relative (JXt)
Resurrection of Xt has given new hope & Rebirth & death is conquered.
Hope-live; salvation - ready; present - future; already – not yet.
1:6-9, Rejoice & Faith.
Faith tested – purer than gold. In these Vs there is hope for the future
This hope for the future is securing in consolation into the present. Suffering produces sorrow, however joy is the final outcome in the midst of sorrow
Vindication=victory=salvation=heaven -----------------------Mt 11:22-25
1:10-12, The witness of salvation.
Not whims 0r fake testified in advance. God is always in control. The revelation that God made is complete & the ones who witnessed it now are the—prophets
The Christians had an inside over view; The prophets & angels had the outside over view
That was the privilege of being a Christian
1:13-21. Hope & Holiness.
13-16.The consequence to this privilege now follows
It is a call to holy living
N He began by using Vs 13 ie roll up the sleeves of your mind, hitch up the waist of
E your Mind, therefore the life of a Christian must conform to their call or faith in
W action & the reason why because they are Gods elect.
O 17 – 21, Here give up your old ways, abandon the old ie the future ways of the
L ancestors –past—no aim—aimless life—no direction. The goal of their future Xt
1: 22 -25, Eternal Love.
Reality of love, genuine love, deeply / earnestly ie qualified love, unconditional love, mutual love . New birth is the condition. Love has to be the visible mark of their new birth. Focusing on the community love Gk Agape.-------Jh 21:15-23 3rd are you my friend
2:1-3. Spiritual Milk.
The life God has given has been referred to mothers milk, because Xtians are like the new born, ie they are growing towards salvation. The process has become the end is yet to be.
2: 4-10. The Church.
Background :Jn 19:25-27. Sp of Jesus, Mother of Jesus, disciples of Jesus. The first Church
2 metaphors used------- Building
------ New People
Building= come to the living stone, which is also the foundation / or corner stone & be built into a new building or a spiritual house. Church is the building of which Xt is the corner stone, or foundation it is the state of life because the stone is not inanimate it is a living stone, beside it is a stumbling block to those who do not believe
New people =(a) Triumphalistic mood ,(b) sadder but wiser mood
a) You are a chosen race a royal residence a priesthood a nation set apart. How ever there is a . b) Once you were no people , now you have become the people
Once you had no mercy now you have mercy
There are 2 aspects to the church failures & success
Vs 12 Beloved –end of first section.
2: 11-12. Good conduct among Gentiles
Conflict within –confrontation without this refers to the tendencies, attitude, thinking between the believer Xtians
For the non belivers here life must be apologetic not= sorry but witness.
2:13-17. Civil disobedience.
Optimism the silence of Xtians accuses others when they do right. That the accusation of others will seem like idle chatter.
Servants = household servants they also refer to Xtians in general. What is the proper response to their hostility, as far as Xtians are concerned examples of humility. The reason that Xt is chosen to die for us, Xt did not give any cause for this situation.
If cause is given suffering cannot be salvafic
There was no cause yet Xt died for us.
3: 1-7. Wives & Husbands.
These were terms used in the patriarchal society, household ie all Xtians. All not only male & female. Refers to Reverent & Pure conduct. Humble & quiet spirit. Do good and not any thing frighten you. Respect your wife as you would respect your emperor. Where there is no equality there prayers are hollow. The focus should not be on outward show
But an internal disposition.
3:8-12. Love of Enemies.
Do Xtians do good (action) because they are just ( state)
Or are they just because they are good
Salvation / justification comes from God, Because we are saved we are good
Are you good because of fear of punishment or hope of reward or are you good because it is good to be good
3 : 13-17. Vindication = victory.
No need of fear Gk phobia be fearless. Be apologetic=not sorry=making a defence, explaining my religion or taking a stand, be a witness. But not out of arrogance condesceusion but hut humble, suffering if it comes must be despite our good behaviour
3 : 18-22 Journey to heaven Mk 6:50. I Jn 4:18
Not even death prtior to the appearance of Xt could seperarte the ungodly from Xt proclamation Gods redemption & mercy which is eternal before time. Like Noah was delivered even from a sinful humanity so also baptism save those who are immersed in the Gods sp
4 : 1-6. Freedom from sin.
God is the author of life not death Mk 12:27. Xts death removes sin once & for all. Death can never be the last word. We need how ever to live up our call.
4 : 7-11. Mutuality in the Congregation.
Love, Hospitality, activity for the benefits of others. All ie done is to be done keeping the good of others always in mind.
4 : 11 is end of part 2 –beloved.
4 : 12-19. Fiery Trial.
Xtian suffereing reviled for Xts Glorification
No suffering because of ones own downfall
The Judgment will be first of those who believe then others.
It will be difficult for believers, even more for others.
5 :1-5. Appeal to elders.
These are not necessarily old people but people of the community, community leaders, Guides, & shepherds. The guidance must not be done for personal gains, it has to be done freely= gratis , without complaints
Exampls of Xt servant hood & Humility.
5 : 6-11. Humility.
Attention stay awake, enemy is within, become aware, be ready
In sIn I is in the center, substitute I with O ie others we have the son = JC.
Mk 11:21-25, Relation with God Lk 15 prayer of the son, 1 Jn 4:10 God loved us first.
Fr Errol Fernandes
INTRODUCTION : 16th Mar 2008.
It was written after Peters death.
This was written by some one from the school of Peter, The language is polished Greek, He uses Hellenistic terms to refer to ‘ your apostles’ ‘1st generation of Christians.
It refers to a collection of Peters letters, & they seemed to be gathered at the end of the I st Centaury. They have invoked the apostles name. There fore the date should be around 125 AD,
What is the letter about:
The letter is a response to the Epicureaan philosophers ; eat, drink b& make merry, for tomorrow may never come. Implication of this philosophy are selfishness, & no sense of the future.
What is Peters answer:
1. In the death & resurrection of Christ we have been saved.
2. That this Christ who is raised will come again.
3. Because Christ is raised & came again the judgment issue.
4. There fore live well now.
T 1:1-2 Address & Salvation T = Testimonial = witness
T1 3-11. Summary of Peters Message A = Apologetic = Response
T2 12- 15 Peters Testimonial. a 10-19. E = Exhortation
A1 Objection & Response <
T3 2:1-3a Peters prediction of the false teachers
A2 2a- 10a Objection 2 & the response E Denunciation of false teachers 10b – 22
T4 3:1-4 Peters Prediction with scoffers.
A3 5-10. Objection 3 & Response E1 Exhortation of the holy living 11 – 16.
17 – 18. Conclusion.
T. The Main concern is being addressed.,
To maintain the teaching of the apostles. There is a warning against apostasy. ( abandoning of faith ) the basis of Christian life ie knowledge of God & Xt. Not heads knowledge but refers to a commitment.
T1. We are given the summery of the whole letter, what is shown here is a the basis of Xtian living & what God has done in Christ.
He is called Xtians thro the life death & Ress. in xt.
The goal : our aim is to reach the end because the goal is immortality, in this context of living together in complete union C god.
Xtian life is also seen as living out in different virtues, The Virtues have their own origin in Gk philosophy. How ever the beginning & the end are love which is a very Christian value
These are to be shown in lived life.
T2. Is a testament & author writes as if he writes before his death. The purpose is to remind Christians & of the origin , heritage, & destination.
The Qs is how established are they are they in their faith.
A1a. What do the false teachers say that the message about the apostles apostles about the parousia is not based on divine revelation but made up, it is myth.
Response- Apostolic eye witness who heard it from the lord himself at the transfiguration. The transfiguration is a prelude to the future.
The 2nd response, the value of the OT prophecy. However this is like a candle in the dark but when the morning star ( Phosphorous ) comes ( xt ) there would be no need of candle, even the OT spoke about this Mt 1 : 23, Mt 2:11.
A1b. OT prophecies is also of divine origin, the HSp inspired this prophecy also. The prophets spoke on behalf of God.
T3. Because he has spoken of the prophets, Peter refers to the false teachers, those who denied the perousia, as successors of the false prophets. Because they do not accept judgment, they encourage immorality. The death of Christ, brought the Christians back from sin. They must not become an object of ridicule by outsiders.
A2. There is surely Judgment. 3 examples.
a. The angel watchers Gen. 6;1-4 also elaborated by 1 Enoch. The angels fall from grace (Jude 6)
b. The flood story Gen 6-8.
c. Sodom & Gomorrah Gen 19.
E. Denunciation. They are arrogant filled with pride. This pride makes them like rampaging (wild) animals. They try to entice the people through deceit as Balaam tried to do
These false teachers are like waterless springs (contradictions), they are mist driven by wind (flimsy & transitory without substance). They have no depth & substance. They are slaves of corruption. Yet provided freedom. How can one reject the GSp after hearing it
Jn 10:10. Dog-vomit; sow-mire (filth).
T4. There is a reference to 1 peter 3:15. It is a call to remember the commandment of the lord. What is the commandment that the parosia is sure.
A3. The parosia is not definite, & it response
a. The sovereignty of Gods word who created heaven & earth (with a word). The same God who destroyed the earth with the flood will move the creation to its climax Rev 21:1-4.
b. The parousia is delayed due to the patience / forbearance of the Lord
Gods ways are not your ways Lk 15:11-12 . God waits.
E1. Exhortation to holy living.
Christians need not fear, there is no need for paralysis, they must live life of holiness.
Holyness would be interpreted in àAge Quad Agis= do what you are doing. Mind & body must be at the same place at the same time.
Day of the Lord = new creation = Christians must be found without spot or blemish
1 – 3 3, 18
The doxology is exclusively addressed to Christ.