Fr Jude Ferreira 8th July 07
( I ) INTRODUCTION
BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT
GOSPELS MK MT LK JN 4
HEB ACTS REV (HE A R) 3
PAULINE I TESS II TESS 2 EARLIY LETTER
CORPUS ROM I COR II COR GAL (CO R G) 4 GREAT LETTERS
EPH PHIL COL PHILM (CO P P E) 4 CAPTIVITY LETTER
I TIM 2 TIM TIT 3 PASTORAL LETTERS
CATHOLIC I PET II PET JAS
EPISTLES I JN II JN III JN JUDE 7
No infancy narratives in MK
Paul was the Ist to write about the New Testament
Initially there was ORAL TRADITION
The Ist writings in 51AD were of St Paul’s writing to the Thessalonians
MK was in 65AD
Ist preachings were on
I DEATH & RESSURECTION (found in all 4 GS written depending on their community needs)
II WORKS & DEEDS found in all 4 GS
III INFANCY NARRATIVES found only in MT & LK
!V PRE EXISTANCE OF J by only JN
We need to find the theological message. What & why is the author saying it.
SYNOPTIC GS have IIIarities + dis IIIarities & repitations; they are different forms of writings
They have narratives , stories, miracle stories.
Discourses : sermon on the mount
Sayings of J Seven days without prayer makes one week
Myths : Temptations of J Anyone who is too busy to pray is busier
Parables. then God wants U to be
Do the SYNOPTIC GS follow a pattern YES
1 PROLOGUE MK 1:1-13
2 GALILIAN MINISTRY 1:14- 9-50
3 JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM 10:1-52.
4. PDR 11:1-16:8.
ADDITIONAL PORTION 9-20
MK was not an apostle, he was a gentile
In the NT we are only sure that Paul wrote the writings that are ascribed to him.
EXERGESIC IS STUDING THE BIBLE
MARK Ch I
WHO WAS MARK in the NT.
a) He was a Hellinistic Jew
b) He has a Greek background. Acts 12:12
c) He is the cousin of Barnabous Col 4: 10 ; Acts 13 : 5
d) He leaves Paul later because of a conflict Acts 13 : 13
e) He goes with Barnabous to Cyprus Acts 15: 37-39
f) He is the helper of Paul Phiomon 24
g) He is sent to Colassia with a captivity letter of Paul Col
h) He is recalled to Rome by Paul 2 Tim 4 : 11
i) He meets Peter in Rome 1 Peter 5 : 13
(III)STRUCTURE OF MK ( J do U believe…..do U want me to cure U)
1 : !-13 PROLOGUE
1 :1 The Opening statement
2-3 The Prophecy
4-8 The person of JB
9-11 Baptism of J
12-13 The Temptations
1 :14 8:26 MYSTERY OF THE MESSIAH
1 : 14-15 Proclamation of J
16-20 Call of disciples
21-28 The unclean spirit
29-31 Peters MILaw
32-39 Other Healings Sin causes suffering / sickness is due to evil spirits
40-45 cure of the leper Sin, Suffering & evil are all connected
8 : 27 16 : 8 MYSTERY OF THE SON OF GOD, SUFFERING MESSIAH
(IV) MK COMMUNITY & THE CUSTOMS THEY FOLLOWED
MK wrote to the Roman Church
Romans were gentiles, non Jews were gentiles.
a) Washing of hands
b) He translated Aramiac words Aramaic was the spokek dialect, the written dialect was Hebrew. (the language of the scriptures)
Talitakum little girl Jairus’ daughter
Boanergos sons of thunder
c) He stressed the Mossaic law ( the law of Moses) against it.
d) He shows that J is interested in the Gentiles
e) MK writes in 65 AD.
f) WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF HIS WRITING:
i) MK wants to show who J is ………………………….. 1: 10 -13
ii) The authority of J is revealed in his WORKS & DEEDS. 1 :16 3 : 6
iii) J is rejected by his own people …………………. 3 : 7 6 : 6a
iv) J is misunderstood by his disciples……………………… 6 : 6b 8 : 21
v) J clarifies the nature of his authority on the way to Jerusalem 8 : 22 10 : 52
w) Resistance to J teaching in Jerusalem …………………… 11 : 1 13 : 37
x) J meets a cruel & tragic death………………………… 14 : 1 16 : 8
MK 1 : 1 The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
BEGINNING - To start in the beginning Genesis
GOSPEL Good News euanggalion…evangelium…evangelist ..message of salvation
OF Could be about J, OR the good news that J gave.
JESUS CHRIST J= One who saves, C= the anointed one.( J is Jewish, C is Hellenistic)
SON not equal to biological son, but having the same nature of God.
MK wants to show that J is the son of God …Ps 82 : 6 “ I say , You are Gods, children of the most high, all of you. Nevertheless, you shall die like mortals, and fall lie any prince.” ``````
MK 1:2 As it is written in prophet Isaiah “ See Im sending my messenger ahead of you who will prepare your way; the voice of one crying out in wilderness: prepare the way of the Lord, make his path straight.
Son of God would be preceded by Elijah; John the Baptist preceded J. Zac !:2 Ist Aunnciation; to Mary II Annunciation.
J d Bap was born 6 mts before J on 24/6
J d Bap is the only St in d church whose Birthday is celebrated with J & Mary.
John the Baptist
He was a relative of J
He had his own disciples Vers onica VERONICA
He was a preacher true face
JdB baptized with the baptism of repentance.
He was a precursor to J
He announces J, & also baptizes J
MK 1: 2-13
2-3 JB the prophet – The coming of the messiah
Malachi 3:1 See, I am sending my messenger to prepare the way before me, & the Lord whom u seek will suddenly come to the temple. The messenger of the covenant in whom u delight- indeed he is coming, says the Lord of hosts.
Isaiah 40-3 A voice cried out: ‘In the wilderness prepare the way of the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway of the lord.
4-6 The person of JB
Now JB clothed in camels Hair--- Zec 13:4 The prophets at that time wore an hairy mantle.
1 Kings 19:19 Elijah put his mantle over Elisha
With a leather belt around his waste--- 2 Kings 1 : 8 A Hairy man with a leather belt around his waste . It is Elijah
And he ate locust & wild honey---Lev 11: 22 Aesthetic food / pure food
7-8 His teaching--- JB is also very humble
9-11 Baptism of J---- Baptism of J was not only with water but also with the HS
Why was JC baptized by JB--- JB Baptism was a baptism of repentance / & forgiveness of sins.
J took upon him self all the sins of the world, to identify with the human kind; the HS comes in the form of the dove , here the Father, Son, & HS were present; God affirmed that his son J was his son, JC is the mediator between God & Human beings.
Ps 2:7 “ U R my son; today I have begotten u”
Is 42:1-----Pg 839.
JB wants to show that the prophecies were being fulfilled
JB is a prophet, messenger of the messiah, he introduced J
JB operated from the river Jordan
12-13 The Temptation
THEOPHANY : Theo is God; Manifestation of God
1:13--- No one was with J then, what is the myth; myth is the way of writing to express a deep truth.
In other cultures & religions----Great people were tested--- Before they carried out what their Gods wanted them to do.
Ps 11:5 Lord tests the righteous 40 days is symbolic to the 40 yrs the Israelites were in the desert-----MT 4: 1-11;--LK 4: 1-13
MK 12-13 MT LK
1 Stone/Bread Stone / Bread
Basic Food Basic Food
2 Throw your self down Kingdom of the world
Testing God Greed & Power
3 Kingdom of the world Throw ur self down
J did not succumb to d temptations, J was totally human, J was a son of God
1:13 He was with the wild beasts & the angels waited on him------Is 11:6
Wilderness/ desert was the abode of the devil
MK proclaims J victory over the Satan/ evil
J victory over ones own evil inclination & desires
J whole life was a struggle with the forces of evil
The story is also a model for the early church in overcoming all struggles & temptations
John now has to move away to allow JC to take centre stage
1:15 The time is fulfilled & the kingdom of God has come near; repent & believe in the good news
The proclamation of the Kingdom of God---- Kerygma
Time Cronological cronos time
Kairos---opportune moment, decisive moment
Kingdom of God –not a place breaking the barrier of alienation—build bridges
Repent Metonogu -- change of heart let go – repent & believe in Gs ash wed.
1:16-20 Call of the Ist disciples
why did they follow J Psychological / Zealous Anger
Disciples are made by the call of God
Here God takes the first step
Discipleship means giving up everything
The story is a model of the early church
Mark wants to show how powerful & direct J calls to share in his mission
This first calling---At Gethsemane---Jairus daughter
He wanted to let them know his mission & they misunderstood---Peter even denied him
! : 21-28 The unclean Spirit: all sickness was a result of the devil, devil could come singularly or in a legion
*SHUTUP Marks Messianic secret (27) J is a powerful teacher & healer. Devil represents evil, they have mysterious powers &they were hostile to God. Amazement would very soon turn to disappointment
29-31- He rebukes the fever the cure was total & complete. Mk shows us here with the word amazement that the power of J & the completeness of the miracle. Miracle is TOTAL
Vs 32-39 all those that were seen possessed various diseases
J says Shut up He does not allow the devil to speak this is the Messianic secret. He does not want them yet to know how this will all end.
Healing is a sign of Messianic times
The various healings indicate that the end time has come & there is a restoration to perfect harmony
Kingdom of God is near = Rule of God.
Vs 40 -50. Leprosy was an in curable disease, people has boils , discoloration,
patches that would not heal.
Lepers were outcasts they had to carry a bell, wear tattered clothes stay outside the city walls since it was contagious. they were also religiously outcast, they could not pray in the temple Lev 13, 14,
MARK Ch II
Traditionally sin was thought to be the cause of suffering
Jewish prayer for forgiveness it first proceeds with a prayer of healing----- SHERMONCH ESREH
Many diseases are caused by non forgiveness.
J follows the same healing story followed by pronouncement story.
Jews believed that only God can forgive
Full Healing story (2:1-5a---- 2: 10b-12) PAROUSIA----IInd coming of Jesus
Story of pronouncement (2: 5b-10a)
If only God can forgive sins, means J is God Jn 20:25
J forgives sins only in the story of MK.
2 : 13-17 J was wandering, preacher , he did not have a home HE IS CALLED A ITERNERANT
J spent time with tax collectors & sinners( Tax Collectors were put in the same group of Harlots, Prostitutes
A disciples of J leaves everything to follow J, this implies sacrifice…..reward is J presence
17—Kingdom of God Meal – table fellowship, forgiveness, reconciliation
2: 18-22 In the early church the gentiles do not have a tradition of fasting
Jews fasted on Tue, Thu……………Christians fasted on wed, Friday
21-22 old institutions -----new ideas these do not match
23-28 God created the Sabbath for humans, not the other way, no work, cook the previous day
1 Sam 2-7 not Abi than should be Abhi Mallik------------day of rest & prayer
MARK Ch III
(a)1-6 Man with a withered hand
J heals by word of mouth OR touch
J fights evil all seven days a week
6 This is what will happen to u what ever happens 2 j it will happen 2 u
3:7 – 6:6a J with his own disciples
(b) 3:7-12 Summery of Jesus’ miracles
3: 11-12 Messianic secret
(c) 3 : 13-19 Choosing the 12 Apostles--- 12 represented 12 tribes, 12 was a holy # , 12 baskets of scrap,
J was 12 yrs old when he was lost, Jairus daughter was 12 yrs old, bleeding women bleed for 12 yrs.
J wanted 12 apostles to complete his earthly mission to spread the mission of God
Transferring his power to preach cure & heal….to be with j was to be a good learner
To be named by J was to be possessed by J
For the coming judgment MT 19:28
MT MK LK
10:2-4 3:13-19 6:13-16
1 Simon peter 1 1
2 Andrew 4 2
3 James Zebedee 2 3
4 John 3 4
5 Philip 5 5
6 Bartholemew 6 6
7 Thomas 8 8
8 Mathew 7 7
9 James Alphaeus 9 9
10 Thaddeus 10 Simon the Zealot
11 Simon Canaanite 11 Judas son of James
12 Judas 12 12
Why is MK giving us this list
The church has to be expressed in terms of the new Isreal based on the 12 apostles
The church is a Messianic community
The leaders will sit in judgment on all people of the world
The church divinely sanctions ,respect to its leaders in respect to God
Hence in the church we have only apostolic succession ( only Bishops can ordain
12th apostle is Matthias
3 : 20-35 (19b 21) J was a workaholic
his fly fails 2 understand him
3 : 22-27 Beelzebub story
J is from God J is divine
3 : 28-35 Sin against HSp Early Church Today
In Jewish teaching there were 3 sins 1 Apostasy -- leaving ones faith Apostasy Forgiven
2 Go against the Law Adultery Forgiven
3 deny the resurrection Murder Forgiven
The Early Church tries to explain the fact of seriousness of those who refuse to accept the power of Gods HS at work in J such people stand self condemned
3: 31-34 ADELPHOS bro, cousins
they were worried about them6
My mother is a biog disciple of God
Mk community were gentiles
Some scholars also felt that the kin of J wanted power God wants Spiritual
Mary is praised fruits not religious nuts
Background; terminologies ; meaning Theological message
MARK Ch 4
4:1-20 - The Parable of the sower.
4 : 20 25 Measure U give it is the measure U get
The Disciples must grow in understanding J
If U do not use the talent that God gives U , even that will be taken away from U
Disciples are called to continually grow in J or their initial acceptance may die down or be lost.
They will loose what ever they have possessed
Baptism which is a gift has to be natured.
4 : 26- 34 It is a miracle story it has been moralized to bring about the aspect of faith.
The sea was the abode of evil spirit Job 38 : 8 -11
Be still--- abode of evil ---- he is in command of all evil & all forces.
J has power over all powers of nature---------wake up -----amazement will turn into disappointment
MARK Ch 5
If there are pigs the story is not in Jewish territory
Tombs are the haunts of devils-------------- evil d evil spirit bow down 2 J
Vs 7 recognition of power
Vs 8. going to the sea that is evil territory
Vs 17. it is easier to see the violent man , then the power of J
DECAPOLIS = ten cities
5: 21-43 Jairus Daughter
2 stories mixed both are stories of women
J encounters with women 9 times in MK
Climax is J raising the dead girl
Vs. 22 Jairus is Jewish he fell at J feet he seems to know J
The crowds are mobbing him so he cannot move
Both women are hopelessly ill why clothes clothes are an extension of the person
Personality llliy have powerful effects clothes r u
Amazement--- miracles are complete
Vs 43. give her 2 eat
MARK Ch 6
6-1 -- 8-30. Bread section
1-6 Jesus is misunderstood by his people
6: 7-13 take nothing except your staff no bread, no money no bag wear only sandals wear and carry only one tunic
oil olive oil has therapeutic value
power of Jesus is transmitted to his apostles
6-1 -- 8-30. Bread section à a lot of reference to bread 21.07.07.
6:1-6 Jesus is misunderstood, miracles do not happen without faith. Jesus is amazed by their
lack of faith
6:7-13. Mission of the apostles depends totally on God, when you go on a mission
6:14-29 JBp died a martyrs death, Mark prepares a way for the death of Jesus. JBp spoke
the truth & Herod Antipas killed him for political & religious reasons. JBp had a
large following. Mark shows a parallel between JBp & Jesus.
Vs 16. Herodios was responsible for the death of JBp
The scribes were responsible to kill JC
Pilate put Jesus to death without knowing Jesus’ crime.
Vs 29. Some one else will come & bury Jesus.
Mark wants his community to be like JBp to experience Jesus.
You must enable others to experience Jesus like JBp.
Vs 14. You must reflect that Jesus has come back to life.
6:30-44 is a parallel to 8:1-9 Bread section.
No acclamation, no amazement the disciples are dumb (5000 / 4000)
Why the multiplication of bread is connected to the Eucharist
(Jn Bread section à 5:1-15)
Mk Mt Jn
6:30-44 8:1-9 Vs 10
5000 4000 5000
Crowd is Jewish Gentiles / from Sidon Galileans & Jewish
Where : close to the shore Desert Mountain
Food: 5 loaves & 2 fishes 7 loaves & few fishes 5 loaves & 2 fishes
Left overs 12 baskets 7 baskets 12 baskets
Why 2 accounts of the same story:- à Same story to two different audiences.
For the Jews # 5 related to the 5 books of the Pentateuch
5 loaves were kept in the holy place in the tabernacle,
12 Tribe of Israel
7 was a perfect number.
For the Gentiles ; 4 corners of the world. N. S. E. W.
7 Deacons in the Acts of the Apostles.
For both the communities the focus is the Eucharist.
70 signifies the total nations of the Greek world
Story point to sharing à the Eucharist is always a sharing experience.
The Xtian Eucharist is a place for the true Xtian community to form, where people from diverse background become one in the Lord. Who gives bread to all in great abundance
6:45 -52. Vs 48 He intended to pass them by à Exo 33:17, divine manifestation of passing by. Jesus is God
Conclusion : Even though these miracles took place, they cannot be à
Vs 49. Post resurrection narrative. Resurrected, Glorified Jesus in the Holy communion.
Vs 50. Tell the community do not fear, the resurrected Jesus was all powerful, the risen
Jesus takes up all your fears.
Vs 52. This is in regards to the suffering messiah
Vs 53-56. At once immediately. (56) must have faith. à clothes are an extension of a
Jesus is fully in control of all cosmic forces.
Ch 7:1-8. Defilement
Tradition of the elders to wash your hands.
Vs 6-8. What are you doing
Vs 9-13. CORBAN Aramaic How Jesus attack the Pharisees, à that which is offered to God.
They misuse their Law for their own needs à Exo 21:17; Lev 20:9.
Vs 14-23. Vs 15. Post resurrection story. Eat what ever you want to eat, all foods are clean
Vs 13. Impure things that come out of the mans heart.
1. Fornication, 2. Theft, 3. Murder, 4. Adultery, 5. Avarice, 6, Wickedness, 7. Deceit, 8. Envy
9. Licentiousness. 10. Slander. 11 Pride, 12 Folly. 13 Evil Intentions.
7:24-30. Dialogue between Jesus & Mary, Jesus reaches to the Gentiles.
Mt 10:5 Go only to the Jews, All Gentiles & Samaritans were considered dogs by Jews
She was o Greek, a non Jew, & she was a women.
Vs 27 Gentile has faith
Mission to the Gentiles starts after the resurrection of Jesus
Open formula, Jesus to the Gentile. She is persistence & full of faith
WHEN YOU DON’T GET WHAT YOU WANT SURRENDER IN FAITH.
7:31-35.Deaf Mute he is a non Jew, People brought him to Jesus. Jesus took him away. Spittle has therapeutic properties
Mark shows the purpose of the story. à The story is a fulfillment of Is 35:5-6
Mark wants to show that Jesus is the perfect fulfillment of the ancient Prophecies of Is.
Jesus fulfills old prophecies of the OT text.
“ Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, & the ears of the deaf unstopped.”
Eph pha tha à Be opened. May his ears be opened & mouth to preach Gods word.
8:11-13. Mt 10:32-42 Sign of Jonah, in the belly of the earths tomb.
Jesus says either believe fully or don’t believe at all.
Pharisees never believed that Jesus is the son of God.
8:14-21 Leaven à yeast it can be good & bad
Positive Lk 13:13-20
------------------------------------- Kingdom of Heaven
Negative 1 Cor 5:6
8:22-26. Life deaf mute
8:27-30 Called the Bridge section / Hinge Section
Peter assumes leadership / qualities. Lk 9:8-22.
The nature of the Messiah is not revealed only who is the Messiah.
The Triple Prediction of Mark in à Ch 8, 9, 10
1st 2nd 3rd.
Prediction 8:31 9:30-31 10:32-34
Misunderstanding 8:32-33 9:32-34 10:35-37
Instructions 8:34-9:1 9:35-50 10:38-45
Compliments 9:2-29 10:1-31 10:46-52
8:31 Jesus must go to his death.
God loved the world so much that he gave his only son
God decrees that the son of man should die
9:2 Mountain is the meeting place for God à Tabor. 3 peter, James , Job
Ex 24:54 Prophet Elijah à Moses à Law giver
Baptism 3. Father , Son, & HSp
9:7 Father & Son
Mark shows that Jesus is the fulfillment of the law & the prophets.
3 tents, Booths. à Feast of the booths.
There is no Glorification without suffering. There is no resurrection without death
There is no Easter without Good Friday.
9:14-29Epileptical Boy Vs 18, & Vs 21-22 illness is explained twice
Vs 14 . Crowd is present
Vs 25 Crowd came running. The disciples could not cast the demon
9:21-27 Original Miracle story
9:14-20 Mixed with
Focus is not only faith / prayer. Prayer is necessary.
Vs 23. We must be prayerful
Vs 36. We need to be open, honest, & trusting as children
3 concerns in Marks community.
à You need to be child like
à Servant hood
à envy & intolerant of others
9:38-41.To be tolerant of people of good will
9:42-48. Traditional Imagery.
Gehenna à unquenchable fires.
Valley of Hinnom
Salted & fire à Symbol of purification
Vs 49. Hospitality & friendship
10:1-12. For the gentiles Divorce à is a writ of Dismissal
Jews à men could divorce, the women could not.
10:4 Divorce for human weakness.à
The sanctity of marriage is based on the covenant of God
10:13-16 Mk à The KOG must be received like a gift, as a child would receive it.
Vs 17-31. To be rich was a blessing of God, wealth can be an obstacle to Discipleship, the rewards of a disciple are infinite, greater the sacrifice that one makes, greater is the reward.
Discipleship means detachment.
Vs 23. Not sharing with others
Vs 46-52. Healed physically cured à Spiritually cured.
Vs 47. Messianic title. Jesus is the son of David.
11:1-11. Vs 3. ‘Lord’ is the resurrection title.
Zec 9:9 Prophecy fulfilled à Yoke not put -- it is kept for the slotter (Sin offering)
#s 19:2; Deu 21:3
Vs 8. Leafy branches
Hosanna à please save us Ps 118:25-26.
à greeting to the son of David.
11:12-14. Only miracle in Jerusalem, that destroys property, pigs.
Withering of trees ; Is 1:30; Ez 17:9; Joel 1:12; Amos 2:9.
Figs grow in June & not in April. It is a symbolic story
The story is symbolic, it focuses Israel’s lack of readiness or his message.
Hence they stand condemned
The fig tree was an OT image of Israel à Hos 9:10.
Jesus cursing of the fig tree would symbolically stand for his anger with the Jewish people, for their lack of belief & their acceptance of them.
The withered fig tree is meant to symbolize the fruitless sight of Jewish piety in Jesus times.
11:15-19. Cleansing of the temple
Vs 17. All nations – all gentiles à Is 56:6-7. Prophecy.
Jer 7:8-11 Den of robbers
Vs 17 Pronouncement
11:20-26 Prayer & faith / prayer & forgiveness.
ON TO JERSALEM
Entry into Jerusalem (11: 1-11)
1. Roman authorities and the high priest do not =ake any action at this "entry" of Jesus with a huge crowd esp. at Passover=time.
2. "Lord" is a resurrection title – Jesus seem= to declare himself here (earlier Messianic secret)
3. "The colt" – how could Jesus know about thi=? The yoke has not yet been put on the animal and such an animal is slaugh=ered for sin (some sin). There is reference to a "red heifer" in Num 19:2=® "upon which yoke ….." Deut 21:3 ® "never been worked ….. yoke……"<=p>
EXPLANATION: Understand the sy=bolism :
Zechariah 9:9 Jesus fulfils this prophecy
· "leafy branches" = =k does not specify palms.
&nb=p; =nbsp; <=pan> (Mt ® "branches from the trees)<=p>
&nb=p; =nbsp; <=pan> (Lk ® Nil. Jn. Nil)<=span>
· "Hosanna …."&=bsp; = from Ps 118: 25-26
&nb=p; =nbsp; <=pan> = meaning is "save please"
&nb=p; =nbsp; <=pan> = here it is more a greeting of homage
Cursing of the fig tree=/u> (11: 12- =4)
· In Mk, first the curs=ng, then the "cleansing" and then the explanation of the cursing.
· Problematic: only mir=cle in Jerusalem, destroys property (cfr "pigs" in ch 5), Jesus' behaviour=seems irrational and destructive.
· OT background is a se=ies of passages about plants and their fruits: Is 1:30: "be … withers"
Ezekiel 17:9 – "uproot =85. withers…."
Amos 2: 9 –< p>
· Figs in Palestine are=not ripe before June
· A symbolic story focu=sing on Israel's lack of readiness to accept Jesus or his message of the k=ngdom. Hence "may you stand condemned."
· The fig tree was a co=mon OT image for Israel (Hos 9:10). Jesus' cursing of t=e fig tree would symbolically stand for his anger with the Jewish people (lace of belief and their acceptanc= of him)
· Story is also linked =ith the cleansing of the temple.
· The withered fig-tree=is meant to symbolise the fruitless side of Jewish piety in Jesus' time.
Cleansing of the Temple=/u> (11: 15-1=)
· The prophecy in Is=56:6-7
"make them (foreigners) joyful in=my house of prayers…." The temple will be opened to f=reigners.
· Jer 7:8 – 11 – "b=come a den of robbers …" (v-11)
· The money-changers ga=e out Jewish coins in exchange for Greek or Roman money
Explanation of the fig tree (1=:20-26 )
· Mark drives home the =oint of prayer and faith
· Prayer + forgiveness<=font>
5 controversy stories + 1 para=le
1. On whose authority 1:27 - 33
* 2. Parable o= the tenants 12:1 – 12
3. Paying taxes to Caesar 12: 13-17< p>
4. On the resurrection 12:18-27
5. The great commandment 12:28-34<=p>
6. On David's Son 12:35-37
1. On whose auth=rity 11:27-33 (v=s Scribes ch. Priests and elders)
· The question was desi=ned to trap Jesus into a public claim that his authority was from God thus=laying the groundwork for a charge of blasphemy (cfr. 14:64)
· The prime movers of t=e plot against Jesus are the Chief Priests, Scribes, Elders.=/p>
· The reference is to J=sus' cleansing of the Temple.
· The dilemma
=/u>: If they =dmitted the divine origin of JB's baptism they would leave to explain why =hey did no accept is/him.
If they denied the divine =rigin they would run the risk of opposition from the general public who be=ieved JB to be a prophet from God.
2.PARABLE OF THE TENANTS (=2:1 –12)
The parable is an allegory:< span>
Vineyard = Israel; =wner = God
Tenants = Israel's =eaders, Son = Jesus
Servants = prophets= others = Gentiles
· Punishment = destru=tion of the leadership seen in the destruction of the Temple=/p>
Difference in Mt and Lk=/span>
(21:33 – 46)
Mt= many servants=/p>
Mk = 1 servant, 1 servant, many=/font>
Lk = servants go one by one
Absentee landlords<=pan lang="EN-GB" style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black"> sent servants =r rent collectors during the year
"Vineyard" = Is 5:1=2
hedge was to keep ani=als out
winepress = for pre=sing the grapes into wine.
tower = a place for=watchmen/shelter
· Servants are given wo=se and worse treatment ® beating, wounding, shameful treatment, d=ath.
"stone" which the bui=ders…." = Ps 118: 22-23
corner-stone = hold= the walls of the building together
Conclusion: The parable comments =n the hostility of the Jewish leaders towards Jesus. The kingdom of God will now be open to non-Jesus (Genti=es).
3.PAYING TA=ES TO CAESAR (12: 13-17) v/s Pharisees & Herodious
· Jesus goes on to chal=enge his audience to be as exact in serving God as they are in serving Cae=ar.
· Payment of tax was in=Roman coinage and a reminder to the Jesus of their subjugation.
· The trap: If Jesus sa=d its OK to pay taxes then he will be discredited among Jewish nationalist= for collaboration with Rome.
If he says 'no' then he will be s=en as a revolutionary and a danger to Rome.
· Since the coins in wh=ch the tax is to be paid are Roman coins and belong to the Emperor, paying=the tax is simply a matter of giving back to the Emperor what already belonged to him.
· "things of God= = a spiritual challenge to meet one's obligations to God as conscientio=sly as one meets obligations to the State.
4. ON THE RESURRECTION (12:18-27) v/s. Sadduce=s
· Sadducees did not bel=eve in the Resurrection because of the silence of the Pentatauch on this.<=font>
· They quote Deut 25: 5=10 = marrying the husband's brother if he died
· Jesus uses this occas=on ("trap") to speak about resurrected life.
· He uses Ex 3:6,15 –=16 = "god of the living." God's power can overcome de=th and give life.
· The angelic ch=racter of the resurrected is explained by Jesus.
5. The Great Com=andment (12:28 –34) controversy v/s a scribe
· Jesus' answer combine= 2 OT quotations Deut 6: 4-5 ® "the Shema" (which a =ew had to say twice a day) & Lev. 19:18 ® "love your neighbour……"< p>
· The Scribe has a lack=of hostility and is complimented by Jesus in the end. H=s attitude and sincere desire to learn make the incident into a learning e=ercise rather than controversy.
· "holocausts and sacri=ices" cfr. Hos 6:6, 1Sam 15:22
6. David's son = 12:35 - 37
· a complicated argumen= on Ps 110:1 – Lord … lord. The title "son of David= does not exhaustively define the Messiah.
· Jesus is something mo=e. He is Lord (Kyrios) and much greater than David – =e is GOD.
· Lord (God) said to "m= Lord" is someone different from and superior to David i.e. Jesus. Jesus i= more than "son of David"
Attack on the Scribes: (12: 28-40=
· The hypocritical scri=es are the opposite of what Jesus wants his disciples to be.=/p>
· Jesus warns the Scrib=s about their search for honour and prestige (12:38-39) and robbing widows=under the pretence of piety .
· Scribes were the i=terpreters of the law.
· They could serve as <=>trustees of a widow's estate
· A common way of recei=ing their fee was a share in the estate. Perhaps=they raised their fees in certain situations (against Ex 22:21 )
These lawyers will receive a stif= condemnation at the last judgement which is the highest court of a=l.
The Widow's Mite: 12:41 – 44=/u>.
· The woman is contrast=d v/s the greedy scribes.
· "2 copper coins" were=the smallest coins in circulation at that time.
· The widow makes a =eal sacrifice to support the temple whereas the rich simply gave out o= their surplus.
· The end of the story =ignifies total dependence on God. The wid=w is part of the "anawim "
Jesus' final discourse<=u>: (13:1-=7) Division:
a) destruction of the Temple (13:2)
b) future events (13: 5-13)
c) the great tribulation (13:14 – 23)
d) the triumph of the Son of Man (13:24-27)
e) exhortation to confidence and vigilance (13:28-37)<=font>
a) In predicting t=e destruction of the Temple, Jesus stood in the Tradition of the OT prophe=s.
Mic 3:12 –
Jer 26: 18 –=/font>
· Te=ple destroyed in AD 70 by the Romans.
b) Jesus' message is one of patient=endurance in the face of cosmic upheavals and persecution=. "wait-and-see the coming of God's kingdom"
· Ea=ly Christians leaders and teachers may have claimed to be reincarnations o= Jesus. They claimed to be Jesus come back from the rig=t hand of God cfr. 13: 21-23
The coming of the KOG will be pre=eded by wars, uprisings, earthquakes, famines – these are all part of th= divine plan. The example used is of a woman giving birth.
· F=om world events the focus shifts to the fate of the disciples – they wil= suffer persecution. They will encounter opposition fro= Jews and Gentiles
· "=rother will betray brother ….." (within the family too)
c) "desolating sac=ilege" = abomination of desolation cfr. Dan 9;27,11:31, 12:11 1Macc 1:54= 59
Antiochus IV Epiphanes erected an=altar in the Temple and slaughtered unclean animals on it. Later, put his own statue (in 168 BC)
· L=ter Emperor Caligula will do the same.
v-19 // Dan 12:1 – "time=of trouble ….
· G=d has established a time schedule for the coming of the kingdom (Dan 12:7)=/font>
d) Cosmic portents/signs are take= from the OT:
Is 13:10, Ezek 32:7, Amos=8:9, Joel 2:10, 31
i.e. all creation will si=nal his coming.
"clouds"- Dan 7:13 – ap=lied to Jesus
· T=e gathering of the elect will take place.
=nbsp; 2 parables ............the fig tree
=nbsp; &nb=p; =nbsp; man going on a journey
=span lang="EN-GB" style="FONT-SIZE: 11pt; COLOR: black">
3 sayings (13:30, 13:31, 13:32)
Catch phrases = these things (2=), pass away (30), watch (33), gate (29)
"heaven & earth will pass awa=" = Os 51:6, 40:8
· T=e door-keeper must be ready for the master's return (v-34). Since the exact time is not known, constant vigilance is required