Fr. Jude Ferreira Sep/Oct 2007.
Definition of the term
Type of texts
INTRO : to the Passion Narratives:
1. Garden of Gethsemane is the start------end is the tomb
It is the longest story in one part.
2. This passion narrative caught the imagination of dramatist, artists musicians with vivid
3. Contains elements that have left their mark on Language & imagery .
30 pieces of silver
wash your hand—take no responsibility
4. Historically : Death of Jesus was the most public moment of his life Caiphas, Annas; Pilot
Herod, Jewish/ secular History.
Jesus died on the cross –executed—
Christos—crucified—annals of history. No Historical facts of the
5. Theologically: Death of Jesus on the cross, as a key element of ^s plan. ^ has a plan, J saves me redeems me, justifies. I believe that J died on the cross so that I am free, Justifies, redeems & saves me.
6. Spiritually & Pastorally: The passion of J is the focus of Xtian meditation for countless disciples of the world.---------Act of the man on the cross---egolessness
Passion: Church & it Liturgy. The passion story is the centre piece of the season of lent & holy week, most sacred part of holy week & aster
If you compare the 4 passions you find they are different.
Mark has a very human Jesus
John has a very Victorious Jesus.
Luke Has a very compassionate & suffering Jesus.
Last wds of Jesus do not have a pattern
Lks Gs –scourging at the pillar is skipped
Garden of Gethsemane—Mks Gs has a young man who leaves his clothes.
Lk 22: 7-38
LAST SUPPER: Preparation for the passion, during the feasts of unleavened bread
Ist day of the feast of unleavened bread this meal takes place
Jewish diary is from 6pm Fri 6am
6th ----12 midnight 3rd. hr 9am
9th. 3am 6th. Hr 12noon
9th hr 3pm
Unleavened bread Wed. 6pm---Thu 6pm------------lamb for the Passover meal
Luke 22:8 J sent Peter & John---large upper room-----at this meal the betrayal is foretold
This was revealed in 3 stages Mt26:21; 23; 25.
There were 12 Apostles + Jesus, Meal was sitting on Mats on the floor.
Jesus & apostles sat down with cushions behind them, they reclined and ate.
Jn 13:21-30; Mt 26:21. Truly I say to you, one of you will betray me
Mt 26:23 The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me will betray him.
It was a Jewish custom that 3 people ate from the same plate
165. What made Judas betray Jesus ? Judas was a thief, he wanted a strong Jesus, Jesus was meek.Judas wanted Jesus to act.
The Passover meal Mt, Mk, Lk John
Leavened bread Yeast bread
1. Why choose bread & wine they were common elements at that time & give them a new meaning & Institute the Eucharist— This is my body this is my blood
He was referring to the death on the cross. This was a new covenant (Lk) The old covenant was at Mt Sainai stone, Mt, Mk.
2. Lk 22:19 Jesus (the bread) took, bless, broke, gave
the wine took gave thanks gave
166. How did they have a Passover meal ? Seder Meal. Ex 12: 1- 14.
1. Preliminary Courses: Washing feet & Hands, dishes brought & not eaten. Roast lamb, bitter herbs,
( a reminder of the hard life under the pharos in Egypt) fruits & nuts. bread & wine
Blessing said on the 1st cup of wine.
2. The passion Liturgy—Haggadah Liturgy—Here the youngest member of the family asked why is this night different from other nights. The Oldest in the fly told the whole exodus event.
Ist Hallel Ps 145 was sung—this was a song of praise.
The song of praise on the 2nd cup of wine was sung Haggadah cup.
3. Meal proper * Blessing on the bread,& eating would start.
Blessing over the 3rd cup of wine ‘cup of blessing ---mass—Maundy Thursday
4. Concluding rites 2nd. part of the Hallel Ps 113-118 was sung
& the 4th. Cup of wine was blessed & served.
At the end the Great Hallel Ps 136 was sung.
After the meal is over Jesus predicts the failure of the disciples Zec 13:7
Jesus predicts that the faith of the disciples will be shaken.
Jesus predicts Peters failure.
168. The sword is the symbol of crises
Your life will be at stake, you will be on your own, will you stand firm.
III. Gethsemane & Arrest Mk, Mt.
(a) Mount of Olives is the mount of Zion, between these 2 kingdom valleys, along the slopes were olive trees. Olive Oil was kept in vats, there were also olive presses there. This place seemed to be familiar to Jesus. This was a very peaceful grove. Peter, James & John were invited by Jesus to watch & pray. Jesus seemed to be troubled. Mk/Lk 22:44 condition known as Hematidrosis, intense fear & tension. Capillaries burst thro yhe sweat glands. In Lk. Sweating with blood. Jesus is afraid, it’s a mental emotion. In Mt & Mk –3 times, in Lk its only once
Posture of Jesus—Mk. Jesus fell to the ground
Mt. Jesus fell on to his face.
Lk. Jesus knelt down
Prayer of Jesus Mt—My father
Sign of intimacy, Jesus speaks like a child to his father
Cup of suffering--- passion death.
Mk if it is possible
Mt; Mk Spirit is willing
170/171. Lk 52.
It was customary to kiss a rabbi, sign of respect & affection for a well loved teacher. The kiss was more like a lovers kiss, kiss of friendship, sad expression, makes the betrayal more interesting
NRSV Mt 26:50—friend do what you have come here for.
Simon Peter cut the ear; In Jn it was Malcus
In Mt, Mk, & Jn. Jesus touched his ear healed him. & In Lk Jesus as a compassionate Xt.
Mk 14:52. Symbolic is it Mark himself.
Jesus leaves the linen cloth, Jesus also escapes death, leaving behind the linen cloth.
The young man symbolism is a preview to the resurrection of Jesus.What would be the end of the passion.
172. Jesus before the Sanhedrin
He is the highest supreme council that governed the affairs of the community of the Jews.
They could decide—creed – faith.
Mk 14:53—high priest
Acts 23:6? How many were there ---70.
Caiphus was the high priest
Annas was the father in law of Caiaphas.
Annas was appointed as high priest in 6AQuirinus was the governor of Syria. He remained as governor till 15Ad, his fly was wealthy & influential.
Caiaphas was the High Priest from 18AD—36/37Ad – He was deposed by Vitellius
Mk, Mt Sanhedrin—night—there were supposed to be 2 sessions.
Lk 22:66 said it was in the morning.
172. Mk / Lk in the night.
Trial of Jesus was a farcical trial:
The Sanhedrin broke their own rule.
- All criminal cases were to be tried during the day time, & had to be completed during the daytime.
- Criminal cases could not be transacted during the Passover season at all.
- Only if the verdict was not guilty, could a case be finished on the day it began, if the verdict was guilty a night had to elapse before the verdict was proposed, so that the court could rethink & even change their condemnation to mercy.
Jesus was arrested after the last supper.
- No decision of the Sanhedrin was valid. Unless it met in its own meeting place ‘Hall of hewn stone’ it was held in the temple precinct. The Sanhedrin is trying in the house of Caiphus.
- In any trial the evidence describing the accused was first put forward & then the evidence of the guilty was brought forward. In Jesus’ case they only brought the guilty.
- All evidence had to be guaranteed by 2 witnesses, separately examined & having no contact with each other. Also false witness were punishable by death, this was specially told to the witness because the persons life was at stake. à no false wqitness were put to death. à Here the witnesses gave separate /different evidences.
Mk 14:58 they should have been punished.
They did not know what to charge him.
Mk 14:58 I will destroy the temple
Jn 2:19-21. YOU àDestroy the temple I will build it in 3 days
You kill me & in 3 days I will rise again.
Q that sealed Jesus’ faith à Caiphus asked ‘ Are you the messiah the son of God’
He cannot say what is false.
174. 26:64 Mt
Mt 26:65 Tearing of robes à signifies hysterical horror.
175. Peters denial.
The cock crowed, the prediction of Jesus has happened
Peters tears are tears of repentance.
176 à 188.
3. Death sentence.
End of the GSp. How many appearances did Jesus have in the 4 GSp. 7th Oct 2007.
176. Jesus came before Pilate twice.
Palestine was divided in to 4 regions Lk 3:1.
Jesus was a Galilean, from Galilee à Judea; From Judea from Galilee. Jerusalem law & order.
Pilate was the governor from 2 AD – 36 AD His head quarters were Caesarea Martima on the coast..
Herad Antiphas, Herad tetraach.
Ituria + Trachonibis – Philip Tetrach.
Lysarias Abilens – Lysarias – Tetrach.
Pilate resided at the HQ he came to Jerusalem during the Passover.
The Sanhedrin had to take permission from the Romans (Pilate) who was their governor.
Jesus was taken on a religious charge. Pilate is only interested in the law & order situation.
Jesus was accused of blasphemy, they decided it was a political crime.
In Lk GSp 23:2-5 the Sanhedrin reports 3 political crimes à Aggitating (arousing) the people.
à opposing taxes to the Roman Empire.
à He called himself king.
By this we know which of this is the most important of the 3.
à the Qs. Are you the king of the Jews ?
Not once in his ministry did he say that he was the king of the Jews.
177. Lk 23:6-16. Herod beheaded John the Baptist.
He wanted to see Jesus performing miracles.
Vs 12. Jesus brings about reconciliation between Pilate & Herod
Lk 23:13 2nd appearance of Jesus.
178. Barabas is a fanatical nationalist.
Scribes incite the people to release Barabas.
Pilate does 3 things: Releases Barabas, Jesus is scourged, He is handed to be crucified.
Scourging was inflicted as a preparation for crucifiction. à Done with a chain a whip with flays.
He was held & the whip was swayed. Pieces of bone & flesh, there were 39-40 lashes
When Jesus regained consciousness he was too week to carry the cross, His garment were ripped of his body. Invariably all the criminals were naked
Jesus was handed over à Mk 10:39
Judas à Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin à Pilate
Pilate à to be crucified.
Jesus was abused 6 ways.
- His clothes were striped
- A scarlet robe to represent royalty was put on him.
- A crown of thorns was put on his head
- A reed was given in his hand.
- He was mocked & spat on.
- He was struck.
- Mocked ‘Hail king of the Jews’
176. 2 things that Judas did. à He repented & returned the money. Would they reverse their decision ? à He hanged himself.
9 Jer. 19:11; 32:6-9.; 11:12-13. Acts 1:18-20.
The probable method of crucifiction.
Jesus carried the horizontal beam
A soldier would carry the charge of the prisoner
The crime of the prisoner
The upright pole was already there
Hands were nailed & roped
Legs were nailed
Death came slowly. Death came by thirst, hunger exposure to the elements
Body was probably burnt.
180. The road to Golgotha.
Mk 15:21 Alexander, Rufus were prominent members of Mks community
Women of Jerusalem à prediction that Jesus makes
Traditional status, falls three times, Veronica wipes the face of Jesus.
Prediction. à barren womb (29) Destruction of the temple à Jerusalem 70AD
You will know what terror is
31. If they can do this to me who is innocent what will happen to those who are really guilty.
Seize of Jerusalem.
181 Mk 3rd Hr à 9am Jesus was crucified.
Mk 27:33 Place of the skull. Probably a mount / hill that resembled a skull. This was outside the city walls. It was a Roman custom. Golgotha was an elevated place.
Mt 34; Mk 23. Jesus did not want to take it, it was resolved to taste death & its bitters & t0 God with open eyes with consciousness.
Division of the Garment: à A Jew wore 5 items of clothes.
a. Inner tunic, b. outer robe c. Sandals. D. Girdle. E. Turban.
Jn 19:23-24. Soldiers. outer robe was seamless à Ps 22:18 fulfillment.
Jesus was a Jew , at least he covered his genitals, otherwise people were nude.
INSCRIPTION: The king of the Jews Jn 19:20 in Hebrew, Aramaic, Latin & Greek.
Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews.
Mt à Jesus was mocked, bystanders asked him to get down
Scribes he saved others. Priests, soldiers, robbers.
Totality of self giving à Blood & Water
Sacramental sign of the church.
183. Lk Sunlight fades. It is finished, mission accomplished
Mk GSp Jesus hangs on the cross in the 6th hr.à 3 hrs eclipse.
à 9am to 6pm he hangs for 6 hrs.
184. The veil tore in to 2 parts.
51. Through the death of Jesus now they can enter.
People now have an access to God through Jesus
The new temple is the body of Jesus. & the new sacrifice is the death on the cross.
The tomb has lost its power
If Jesus lives we too will live. Sheol is binding people no more
Prelude to the resurrection narrative
There is no resurrection without death, power of the grave is finished
Roman centurion ‘truly this was the son of God’.
185. Joseph did 4 things:
Took the body down from the cross.
Wrapped the body with a cloth.
Laid the body in the tomb.
Closed the tomb. Rolled the stone.
Resurrection Narrative contd next page.
Fr Jude. Oct 08.
Resurrection is not a corpse come back to life
Jesus enters into his glory Lk 24:26.
Jesus has a human form
Resurrection is beyond time & space.
Ress metaphorically is trans historical
Ress is the expression of faith.
Ress you need to believe.
Ress Some thing of history understand this with the institution of faith. They must be held together & the D&R event is trans historical in essence & historical in manifestation.
Something did happen
Statement of faith.
Acts of apostles / Epistles
These are sharp statements of belief
Proclamation (Kerygmatic) or confessional we believe
They can be of 2 types:
A creedal statement expressing belief in the resurrection of Jesus. These were produced in the early church.
1 Thess 4:1 Jesus died & rose again
1 Cor 15:3-4. à for I delivered.
Rm 10:9 If you confess ….
Acts of the Ap. 2:23:24; 3:14-15; 4:10; 10:39-41; 13:29-31.
These stress the exaltation of Jesus both creedal & hymnic are ways of expressing the same reality.
Both are important to stress the continuity between Jesus of Nazareth & JC the risen Lord.
Exultation expresses a transcendental nature of existence
Ex Phip 2:6-11 à though he was the son of God he did not misuse the place of honor.
1 Pet 3:18-22 Jesus died -……………
1 Tim 3:16
These hymnic statements were community productions, & were used most probably in the liturgy of the early church.
The problem of the empty tomb.
Mk 16:1 3 women
Mt 28:1 2 women
Lk 24:1 They
Jn 20:1 Mary Magdaline.
187. The appearance of the angel.
Mt 20:2 Angel
Mk 16:5 Young man
Lk 24:4 2 men.
Jn No angels.
Is the Ress historical:
The witness were women, an evidence that would never be accepted in Jewish tradition.
All 4 GSp mentioned Joseph of Aramathia.
They knew the location of the tomb
186. The Jews knew if the empty tomb. Mt 27:66
186. Why did the women go to the tomb.
Mk ---to anoint.
Jn --------Jesus is anointed before the burial
Who rolled the stone:
Mk à Women wonderer who will roll the stone
Mt. àWomen see the stone rolled away.
Lk & Jn stone is rolled away already.
Proclamation that Jesus is risen
Mt 28:5-8. à The empty tomb was not a proof of resurrection but a necessary
Mk 16:6 condition for the disciples to proclaim that Jesus has risen. In Mk
Lk 28:7 GSp faith is created by the proclamation of the angels
He has risen, he has risen. The proclamation creates the experience of the resurrection.
The symbols of the empty tomb is important.
- a tomb is an expression of Jesus’ death.
- Jesus ress is the victory over death.
- Death could never overcome the ress.
It is empty is the continuity between J of N & J the Xt.
III in the 4 GSp there are 8 Parallels.
i. Mt there are 2 à 28:9-10 women
ii. 28:16-18 11 disciples
iii. Lk 24:34-35. 2 disciples
iv. 24:35-50 12 disciples
v. Jn 20:11-18 Mary Magdaline
vi. :19-25 Disciples with Thomas
vii. 26-29 with Thomas
viii. 21:1-25 7 disciples
Mk 16:9-16 Summery
Location Mt Galilee
Lk & Jn Jerusalem
Mt Not specific.
Time of the Appearances: Lk 24:1; 13:36 Easter Sunday
Jn --------------------------Spaced out during the week.
Mt ----------------------- No indication of time.
What type of appearances?
Mt à The appearance is seen as Theophany (Divine manifestation) there is no emphasis on the encounter as such, but an universal mission. Go to all nations Mt 8:16-20.
Jn & Lk: No emphasis on the mission but more on the encounter. This is because of the inability to understand the bodily resurrection. This evangelist shows that the resurrection is in
a special body. The resurrection is a limit experience i.e. it is of the fringes of the world à supernatural world.
- The resurrection narratives are dramatic representatives to convey theological explanations.
- The term seeing à is not so much the physical seeing, it is the grace of God. You cannot see the Ress unless your eyes are opened to God.
The narrative sometimes shows us reluctance on the part of the disciples to recognize or accept the risen Jesus (Thomas). It also shows that the ress was not expected by them (the ress ended at Calvary)
The ress is Tran historical & cannot be studied by the historical method. Yet it is a reality because it is rooted in the past event that is the death of Jesus. The disciples in the death event have experienced the meaning of
Unconditional love of Kenosis Gk= self emptying. This ress is accessible in the present moment (now) thro. Faith.
- Ress also points to the future the final liberation this crates the hope.
- The ress also spurs the mission if I have truly experienced the ress I will work for the society, for the good of others.
Jesus also stressed heavenly values over earthly values; (stored up heavenly treasure) he was totally detached in everything in his public life.
5. The end of existence for us is not death but life eternal.